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Full text of "ASTM A370: Standard Test Method and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products"

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By Authority Of 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Legally Binding Document 



By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code § 552(a) and 
Part 1 of the Code of Regulations § 51 the attached document has been duly 
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally 
binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America. 
HEED THIS NOTICE : Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance. 




Document Name: ASTM A370: Standard Test Method and Definitions 

for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products 

CFR Section(s): 



Standards Body: American Society for Testing and Materials 




Designation: A 370 - 77 € ' 



An American National Standard 

American Association State Highway and 

Transportation Officials Standard 

AASHTO No.: T 244 



Standard Methods and Definitions for 
MECHANICAL TESTING OF STEEL PRODUCTS 1 

This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 370; the number immediately following the designation indicates the 
year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last 
reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. 
These methods have been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense and for listing in the DoD Index of 
Specifications and Standards. 

el Note — Paragraph 18.2 was editorially changed in May 1979. 
e2 Note — Fig. 21 was editorially corrected in October 1980. 



1. Scope 

1.1 These methods cover procedures and 
definitions for the mechanical testing of 
wrought and cast steel products. The various 
mechanical tests herein described are used to 
determine properties required in the product 
specifications. Variations in testing methods are 
to be avoided and standard methods of testing 
are to be followed to obtain reproducible and 
comparable results. In those cases where the 
testing requirements for certain products are 
unique or at variance with these general pro- 
cedures, the product specification testing re- 
quirements shall control. 

1 .2- The following mechanical tests are de- 
scribed: 

Sections 
Tension 5 to 13 

Bend 14 

Hardness: 15 

Brinell 16 and 17 

Rockwell 18 

Impact 19 to 23 

1.3 Supplements covering details peculiar 
to certain products are appended to these 
methods as follows: 

Sections 

Bar Products (Supplement I) S 1 to S 4 

Tubular Products (Supplement II) S 5 to S 9 

Fasteners (Supplement III) S 10 to S 15 

Round Wire Products (Supplement IV) S 16 to S 22 

Significance of Notched Bar Impact Test- 
ing (Supplement V) S 23 to S 28 
Converting Percentage Elongation of 
Round Specimens to Equivalents for Flat 
Specimens (Supplement VI) S 29 to S 31 
Testing Seven Wire Stress-Relieved Strand 

(Supplement VII) S 32 to S 36 

Rounding Test Data (Supplement VIII) 

1 .4 The values stated in inch-pound units are 
to be regarded as the standard. 



2. Applicable Documents 

2.1 ASTM Standards: 

A 4 16 Specification for Uncoated Seven- Wire 

Stress-Relieved Steel Strand for Prestressed 

Concrete 3 
E 4 Practices for Load Verification of Testing 

Machines 4 
E 6 Definitions of Terms Relating to Methods 

of Mechanical Testing 4 
E 8 Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic 

Materials 4 
E 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Me- 
tallic Materials 4 
E 1 8 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and 

Rockwell Superficial Hardness of Metallic 

Materials 4 
E 23 Methods for Notched Bat Impact Testing 

of Metallic Materials 4 / 
E 83 Method of Verificatior/and Classification 



of Extensometers 4 



rA, 



E 110 Test Method for Indentation Hardness 

of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness 

Testers 4 
E 208 Method for Conducting Drop- Weight 

Test to Determine Nil-Ductility Transition 

Temperature of Ferritic Steels 4 



1 These methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM 
Committee A-l on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys 
and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.13 
on Mechanical Testing. 

Current edition approved June 24, 1977. Published 
August 1977. Originally published as A 370 - 53 T. Last 
previous edition A 370 - 76. 

2 For ASME Bciler and Pressure Vessel Code applica- 
tions see related Specification SA-370 in Section II of that 
Code. ; 

3 Annual Book ottASTM Standards, Vol 01.04. 

4 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01. 



A 370 



3. General Precautions 

3.1 Certain methods of fabrication such as 
bending, forming, and welding, or operations 

involving heating, may affect the properties of 
the material under test. Therefore, the prod- 
uct specifications cover the stage of manufac- 
ture at which mechanical testing is to be per- 
formed. The properties shown by testing prior 
to fabrication may not necessarily be repre- 
sentative of the product after it has been com- 
pletely fabricated. 

3.2 Improper machining or preparation of 
test specimens may give erroneous results. 
Care should be exercised to assure good work- 
manship in machining. Improperly machined 
specimens should be discarded and other spec- 
imens substituted. 

3.3 Flaws in the specimen may also affect 
results. If any test specimen develops flaws, 
the retest provision of the applicable product 
specification shall govern. 

3.4 If any test specimen fails because of 
mechanical reasons such as failure of testing 
equipment or improper specimen preparation, 
it may be discarded and another specimen 
taken. 

4. Orientation of Test Specimens 

4.1 The terms "longitudinal test" and 
"transverse test" are used only in material 
specifications for wrought products and are not 
applicable to castings. When such reference is 
made to a test coupon or test specimen, the 
following definitions apply: 

4.1.1 Longitudinal Test, unless specifically 
defined otherwise, signifies that the lengthwise 
axis of the specimen is parallel to the direction 
of the greatest extension of the steel during 
rolling or forging. The stress applied to a lon- 
gitudinal tension test specimen is in the direc- 
tion of the greatest extension, and the axis of 
the fold of a longitudinal bend test specimen 
is at right angles to the direction of greatest 
extension (Figs. 1, 2(a), and 2(b )). 

4.1.2 Transverse Test, unless specifically 
defined otherwise, signifies that the lengthwise 
axis of the specimen is at right angles to the 
direction of the greatest extension of the steel 
during rolling or forging. The stress applied 
to a transverse tension test specimen is at 
right angles to the greatest extension, and the 
axis of the fold of a transverse bend test spec- 



imen is parallel to the greatest extension 

(Fig. 1). 

4.2 The terms "radial test" and "tangential 
test" are used in material specifications for 
some wrought circular products and are not 
applicable to castings. When such reference 
is made to a test coupon or test specimen, the 
following definitions apply: 

4.2.1 Radial Test, unless specifically de- 
fined otherwise, signifies that the lengthwise 
axis of the specimen is perpendicular to the 
axis of the product and coincident with one of 
the radii of a circle drawn with a point on the 
axis of the product as a center (Fig. 2(a)). 

4 -.2.2. Tangential Test, unless specifically de- 
fined otherwise, signifies that the lengthwise 
axis of the specimen is perpendicular to a 
plane containing the axis of the product and 
tangent to a circle drawn with a point on the 
axis of the product as a center (Figs. 2(a), 
2(b), 2(c), and 2(d). 

Tension Test 

5. Description 

5.1 The tension test related to the mechan- 
ical testing of steel products subjects a ma- 
chined or full-section specimen of the material 
under examination to a measured load suffi- 
cient to cause rupture. The resulting proper- 
ties sought are defined in Definitions E 6. 

5.2 In general the testing equipment and 
methods are given in Methods E 8. However, 
there are certain exceptions to Methods E 8 
practices in the testing of steel, and these are 
covered in these methods. 

6. Test Specimen Parameters 

6.1 Selection — Test coupons shall be se- 
lected in accordance with the applicable prod- 
uct specifications. 

6.1.1 Wrought Steels — Wrought steel prod- 
ucts are usually tested in the longitudinal di- 
rection, but in some cases, where size permits 
and the service justifies it, testing is in the 
transverse, radial, or tangential directions (see 
Figs. 1 and 2). 

6.1.2 Forged Steels^For open die forgings, 
the metal for tension testing is usually pro- 
vided by allowing extensions or prolongations 
on one or both ends of the forgings, either on 
all or a representative number as provided by 
the applicable product specifications. Test 



A 370 



specimens are normally taken at mid- radius. 
Certain product specifications permit the use 
of a representative bar or the destruction of a 
production part for test purposes. For ring or 
disk-like forgings test metal is provided by in- 
creasing the diameter, thickness, or length of 
the forging. Upset disk or ring forgings, which 
are worked or extended by forging in a direc- 
tion perpendicular to the axis of the forging, 
usually have their principal extension along 
concentric circles and for such forgings tan- 
gential tension specimens are obtained from 
extra metal on the periphery or end of the 
forging. For some forgings, such as rotors, 

"radial tension tests are required. In such cases 

• : the specimens are cut or trepanned from spec- 
ified locations. 

^'. 6.1.3 Cast Steels — Test coupons for cast- 
trigs from which tension test specimens are 
prepared shall be attached to the castings 
where practicable. If the design of the casting 
is such that test coupons should not be at- 
tached thereon, test coupons shall be cast at- 
tached to separate cast blocks (Fig. 3 and 

-Table 1). 

6.2 Size and Tolerances — Test specimens 
shall be the full thickness or section of mate- 
rial as-rolled, or may be machined to the form 
and dimensions shown in Figs. 4 to 7, inclu- 
sive. The selection of size and type of speci- 
men is prescribed by the applicable product 
specification. Full section specimens shall be 
tested in 8-in. (200-mm) gage length unless 
otherwise specified in the product specifica- 
tion. 

6.3 Procurement of Test Specimens — Spec- 
imens shall be sheared, blanked, sawed, tre- 
panned, or oxygen-cut from portions of the 
material. They are usually machined so as to 
have a reduced cross section at mid-length in 
order to obtain uniform distribution of the 
stress over the cross section and to localize the 
zone of fracture. When test coupons are 
sheared, blanked, sawed, or oxygen-cut, care 
shall be taken to remove by machining all dis- 
torted, cold-worked, or heat-affected areas 
from the edges of the section used in evaluat- 
ing the test. 

6.4 Aging of Test Specimens — Unless 
otherwise specified, it shall be permissible to 
age tension test specimens. The time-temper- 
ature cycle employed must be such that the 



effects of previous processing will not be ma- 
terially changed. It may be accomplished by 
aging at room temperature 24 to 48 h, or in 
shorter time at moderately elevated tempera- 
tures by boiling in water, heating in oil or in 
an oven. 

6.5 Measurement of Dimensions of Test 
Specimens: 

6.5.1 Standard Rectangular Tension Test 
Specimens — These forms of specimens are 
shown in Fig. 4. To determine the cross- 
sectional area, the center width dimension 
shall be measured to the nearest 0.005 in. (0.13 
mm) for the 8-in. (200-mm) gage length speci- 
men and 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) for the 2-in. 
(50-mm) gage length specimen in Fig. 4. The 
center thickness dimension shall be measured 
to the nearest 0.001 in. for both specimens. 

6.5.2 Standard Round Tension Test Speci- 
mens — These forms of specimens are shown 
in Figs. 5 and 6. To determine the cross-sec- 
tional area, the diameter shall be measured at 
the center of the gage length to the nearest 
0.001 in. 

6.6 General — Test specimens shall be 
either substantially full size or machined, as 
prescribed in the product specifications for the 
material being tested. 

6.6.1 Improperly prepared test specimens 
often cause unsatisfactory* test results. It is im- 
portant, therefore, that care be exercised in 
the preparation of specimens, particularly in 
the machining, to assure good workmanship. 

6.6.2 It is desirable to have the cross-sec- 
tional area of the specimen smallest at the 
center of the gage length to ensure fracture 
within the gage length. This is provided for by 
the taper in the gage length permitted for 
each of the specimens described in the follow- 
ing sections. 

6.6.3 For brittle materials it is desirable to 
have fillets of large radius at the ends of the 
gage length. 

7. Plate-Type Specimen 

7.1 The standard plate-type test specimen 
is shown in Fig. 4. This specimen is used for 
testing metallic materials in the form of plate, 
structural and bar-size shapes, and flat mate- 
rial having a nominal thickness of Vie in. 
(5 mm) or over. When product specifications 



so permit, other types of specimens may be 
used. 

Note 1— When called for in the product specifica- 
tion, the 8-in. gage length specimen of Fig. 4 may be 
used for sheet and strip material. 

8. Sheet-Type Specimen 

8.1 The standard sheet-type test specimen 
is shown in Fig. 4. This specimen is used for 
testing metallic materials in the form of sheet, 
plate, flat wire, strip, band, and hoop ranging 
in nominal thickness from 0.005 to % in. 
(0.13 to 19 mm). When product specifications 
so permit, other types of specimens may be 
used, as provided in Section 7. 

9. Round Specimens 

9.1 The standard 0.500-in. (12.5-mm) diam- 
eter round test specimen shown in Fig. 5 is 
used quite generally for testing metallic ma- 
terials, both cast and wrought. 

9.2 Figure 5 also shows small size speci- 
mens proportional to the standard specimen. 
These may be used when it is necessary to 
test material from which the standard speci- 
men or specimens shown in Fig. 4 cannot be 
prepared. Other sizes of small round speci- 
mens may be used. In any such small'"' .size 
specimen it is important that the gage length 
for measurement of elongation be four times 
the diameter of the specimen (see Note 4, 
Fig. 5). 

9.3 The shape of the ends of the specimens 
outside of the gage length shall be suitable to 
the material and of a shape to fit the holders 
or grips of the testing machine so that the 
loads are applied axially. Figure 6 shows spec- 
imens with various types of ends that have 
given satisfactory results. 

10. Gage Marks 

10.1 The specimens shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 
7 shall be gage marked with a center punch, 
scribe marks, multiple device, or drawn with 
ink. The purpose of these gage marks is to de- 
termine the percent elongation. Punch marks 
shall be light, sharp, and accurately spaced. 
The localization of stress at the marks makes 
a hard specimen susceptible to starting frac- 
ture at the punch marks. The gage marks for 
measuring elongation after fracture shall be 
made on the flat or on the edge of the flat ten- 
sion test specimen and within the parallel sec- 



A 370 

tion; for the 8-in. gage length specimen, Fig. 
4, one or more sets of 8-in. gage marks may 
be used, intermediate marks within the gage 
length being optional. Rectangular 2-in. gage 
length specimens, Fig. 4, and round speci- 
mens, Fig. 5, are gage marked with a double- 
pointed center punch or scribe marks. In both 
cases the gage points shall be approximately 
equidistant from the center of the length jpf 
the reduced section. These same precautions 
shall be observed when the test specimen ; is 
full section. 



11. Testing Apparatus and Operations 

11.1 Loading Systems — There are two gen- 
eral types of loading systems, mechanical 
(screw power) and hydraulic. These differ 
chiefly in the variability of the rate of load ap- 
plication. The older screw power machines are 
limited to a small number of fixed free run- 
ning crosshead speeds. Some modern screw 
power machines and all hydraulic machines 
permit stepless variation throughout the range 
of speeds. 

11.2 The tension testing machine shall be 
maintained in good operating condition, used 
only in the proper loading range, and cali- 
brated periodically in accordance with the latest 
revision of Practices E 4. 

Note 2 — Many machines are equipped with stress- 
strain recorders for autographic plotting of stress-strain 
curves. It should be noted that some recorders have a 
load measuring component entirely separate from the 
load indicator of the testing machine. Such recorders 
are calibrated, separately. 

1 1.3 Loading— It is the function of the grip- 
ping or holding device of the testing machine 
to transmit the load from the heads of the 
machine to the specimen under test. The es- 
sential requirement is that the load shall be 
transmitted axially. This implies that the cen- 
ters of the action of the grips shall be in align- 
ment, insofar as practicable, with the axis of 
the specimen at the beginning and during the 
test, and that bending or twisting be held to 
a minimum. Gripping of the specimen shall be 
restricted to the section outside the gage 
length. In the case of certain sections tested 
in full size, nonaxial loading is unavoidable 
and in such cases shall be permissible. 

11.4 Speed of Testing — The speed of test- 
ing shall not be greater than that at which 



A 370 



load and strain readings can be made accu- 
rately. In production testing, speed of testing 
is commonly expressed (1 ) in terms of free 
running crosshead speed (rate of movement of 
the crosshead of the testing machine when not 
under load), or (2) in terms of rate of separa- 
tion of the two heads of the testing machine 
under load, or (3) in terms of rate of stressing 
the specimen. Speed of testing may also be 
expressed in terms of rate of straining the 
specimen. However, it is not practicable to 
control the rate of straining on machines cur- 
rently used in production testing. The follow- 
ing limitations on the speed of testing are 
recommended as adequate for most steel 
products: 

11.4.1 Any convenient speed of testing may 
be used up to one half the specified yield 
point or yield strength. When this point is 
reached, the rate of separation of the cross- 
heads under load shall be adjusted so as not 
to exceed Vi 6 in. per min per inch of gage 
length, or the distance between the grips for 
test specimens not having reduced sections. 
This speed shall be maintained through the 
yield point or yield strength. In determining 
the tensile strength, the rate of separation of 
the heads under load shall not exceed V 2 in. 
per min per inch of gage length. In any event 
the minimum speed of testing shall not be less 
than Mb of the specified maximum rates for 
determining yield point or yield strength and 
tensile strength. 

•11.4.2 It shall be permissible to set the 
speed of the testing machine by adjusting the 
free running crosshead speed to the above 
specified values, inasmuch as the rate of sep-. 
aration of heads under load at these machine 
settings is less than the specified values of free 
running crosshead speed. 

1.1.4,3 As an alternative, if the machine is 
equipped with a device to indicate the rate of 
loading, the speed of the machine from half 
the . specified yield point or yield strength 
through the yield point or yield strength may 
be adjusted sc that the rate of stressing does 
not exceed 100,000 psi (690 MPa)/min. How-, 
ever, the minimum rate of stressing shall not 
be less than 10,000 psi (70 M Pa)/ min. 

12. Definitions 

12.1 For definitions of terms pertaining to 
tension testing, including tensile strength, 



yield, point, yield strength, elongation, and re- 
duction of area, reference should be made to 
Definitions E 6. 

13. Determination of Tensile Properties 

13.1 Yield Point — Yield, point is the first 
stress in a material, less than the maximum 
obtainable stress, at which an increase in strain 
occurs without an increase in stress. Yield 
point is intended for application only for ma- 
terials that may exhibit the unique character- 
istic of showing an increase in strain without 
an increase in stress. The stress-strain diagram 
is characterized by a sharp knee or discon- 
tinuity. Determine yield point by one of the 
following methods: 

13.1.1 Drop of the Beam or Halt of the 
Pointer Method — In this method apply an 
increasing load to the specimen at a uniform 
rate. When a lever and poise machine is used, 
keep the beam in balance by running out the 
poise at approximately a steady rate. When 
the yield point of the material is reached, the 
increase of the load will stop, but run the 
poise a. trifle beyond the balance position, and 
the beam of the machine will drop for a brief 
but appreciable interval of time. When a ma- 
chine equipped with a load-indicating dial is 
used there is a halt or hesitation of the load- 
indicating pointer corresponding to the drop of 
the beam. Note the load at the ''drop of the 
beam" or the "halt of the pointer" and record 
the corresponding stress as the yield point. 

13. 1. 2 Autographic Diagram Method— 
When a sharp-kneed stress-strain diagram is 
obtained by an autographic recording device, 
take the stress corresponding to the top of the 
knee (Fig. 8), or the stress at which the curve 
drops as the yield point (Fig. 8). 

13.1.3 Total Extension Under Load 
Method — When testing material for yield 
point and the test specimens may not exhibit 
a well-defined disproportionate deformation 
that characterizes a yield point as measured 
by the drop of the beam, halt of the pointer, 
or autographic diagram methods described 
in 13.1.1 and 13.1.2, a value equivalent to the 
yield point in its practical significance may be 
determined by the following method and may 
be recorded as yield point: Attach a Class C 
or better extensometer (Notes 3 and 4) to the 
specimen. When the load producing a specified 
extension (Note 5) is reached record the stress 



A 370 



corresponding to the load as the yield point, and 
remove the extensometer (Fig. 9). 

Note 3 — Automatic devices are available that de- 
termine the. load at the specified total extension without 
plotting a stress-strain curve. Such devices may be used 
if their accuracy has been demonstrated. Multiplying 
calipers and other such devices are acceptable for use 
provided their accuracy has been demonstrated as 
equivalent to a Class C extensometer. 

Note 4 — Reference should be made to Method E 83. 

Note 5 — For steel with a yield point specified not 
over 80 000 psi (550 MPa), an appropriate value is 
0.005 in./in. of gage length. For values above 80 000 
psi, this method is not valid unless the limiting total 
extension is increased. 



13.2 Yield Strength — Yield strength is 
the stress at which a material exhibits a speci- 
fied limiting deviation from the proportional- 
ity of stress to strain. The deviation is ex- 
pressed in terms of strain, percent offset, total 
extension under load, etc. Determine yield 
strength by one of the following methods: 

13.2.1 Offset Method^To determine the 
yield strength by the "offset method," it is 
necessary to secure data (autographic or nu- 
merical) from which a stress-strain diagram 
may be drawn. Then on the stress-strain 
diagram (Fig. 10) lay off Om equal to the 
specified value of the offset, draw mn parallel 
to OA, and thus locate r, the intersection of 
mn with the stress-strain curve corresponding 
to load R which is the yield strength load. 

" In reporting values of yield strength obtained 
by this method, the specified value of "off- 
set" used should be stated in parentheses 
after the term yield strength, thus: 
Yield strength (0.2% offset) 

' = 52 000 psi (360 MPa) 
In using this method, a minimum extensom- 
eter magnification of 250 to 1 is required. 
A Class Bl extensometer meets this require- 
ment (see Note 5). See also Note 7 for automatic 
devices. 

13.2.2 Extension Under Load Method — 
For tests to determine the acceptance or re- 
jection of material whose stress-strain charac- 
teristics are well known from previous tests 
of similar material in which stress-strain dia- 
grams were plotted, the total strain corre- 
sponding to the stress at which the specified 
offset (see Note 7) occurs will be known within 
satisfactory limits. The stress on the specimen, 
when this total strain is reached, is the value of 



the yield strength. The total strain can be ob- 
tained satisfactorily by use of a Class Bl exten- 
someter (Notes 3 and 4). 

Note 6 — Automatic devices are available that de- 
termine offset yield strength without plotting a stress- 
strain curve. Such devices may be used if their accuracy 
has been demonstrated. 

Note 7 — The appropriate magnitude of the exten- 
sion under load will obviously vary with the strength 
range of the particular steel under test. In general, the 
value of extension under load applicable to steel at any 
strength level may be determined from the sum of the 
proportional strain and the plastic strain expected at 
the specified yield strength. The following equation is 
used: 

Extension under load, in./in. of gage length 

= (YS/E) + r 
where: 

YS = specified yield strength, psi or MPa, 
E = modulus of elasticity, psi or MPa, and 
r = limiting plastic strain, in./in. 

.13.3 Tensile Strength — Calculate the ten- 
sile strength by dividing the maximum load 
the specimen sustains during a tension test by 
the original cross-sectional area of the speci- 
men. 

13.4 Elongation: 

13.4.1 Fit the ends of the fractured speci- 
men together carefully and measure the dis- 
tance between the gage marks to the nearest 
0.01 in. (0.25 mm) for gage lengths of 2 in. 
and under, and to the nearest 0.5 percent of 
the gage length for gage lengths over 2 in. A 
percentage scale reading to 0.5 percent of the 
gage length may be used. The elongation is 
the increase in length of the gage length, ex- 
pressed as a percentage of the original gage 
length. In reporting elongation values, give 
both the percentage increase and the original 
gage length. 

13.4.2 If any part of the fracture takes 
place outside of the middle half of the gage 
length or in a punched or scribed mark within 
the reduced section, the elongation value ob- 
tained may not be representative of the ma- 
terial. If the elongation so measured meets 
the minimum requirements specified, no fur- 
ther testing is indicated, but if the elongation 
is less than the minimum requirements, dis- 
card the test and retest. 

13.5 Reduction of Area — Fit the ends of 
the fractured specimen together and measure 
the mean diameter or the width and thickness 
at the smallest cross section to the same accu- 



A 370 



racy as the original dimensions. The difference 
between the area thus found and the area of 
the original cross section expressed as a per- 
centage of the original area, is the reduction 
of area. 

Bend Test 

14. Description 

14.1 The bend test is one method for evalu- 
ating ductility, but it cannot be considered 
as a quantitative means of predicting service 
performance in bending operations. The se- 
verity of the bend test is primarily a function 
of the angle of bend and inside diameter to 
which the specimen is bent, and of the cross 
section of the specimen. These conditions are 
varied according to location and orientation of 
the test specimen and the chemical composi- 
tion, tensile properties, hardness, type, and 
quality of the steel specified. 

14.2 Unless otherwise specified, it shall be 
permissible to age bend test specimens. The 
time-temperature cycle employed must be 
such that the effects of previous processing 
will not be materially changed. It may be ac- 
complished by aging at room temperature 24 
to 48 h, or in shorter time at moderately ele- 
vated temperatures by boiling in water, heat- 
ing in oil, or in an oven. 

14.3 Bend the test specimen at room tem- 
perature to an inside diameter, as designated 
by "the applicable product specifications, to 
the extent specified without major cracking 
on the outside of the bent portion. The speed 

. of bending is ordinarily not an important 
factor. 

Hardness Test 

15. General 

15.1 A hardness test is a means of deter- 
mining resistance to penetration and is oc- 
casionally employed to obtain a quick approx- 
imation of tensile strength. Tables 3 A, 3B, 
3C, and 3D are for the conversion of hardness 
measurements from one scale to another or to 
approximate tensile stength. These conversion 
values have been obtained from computer- 
generated curves and are presented to the 
nearest 0.1 point to permit accurate re- 
production of those curves. Since all con- 
verted hardness values must be considered 
approximate, however, all converted Rock- 
well hardness numbers shall be rounded to 



the nearest whole number. 

16. BrinellTest 

16.1 Description: 

16.1.1 A specified load is applied to a flat 
surface of the specimen to be tested, through 
a hard ball of specified diameter. The average 
diameter of the indentation is used as a basis 
for calculation of the Brinell hardness number. 
The quotient of the applied load divided by 
the area of the surface of the indentation, 
which is assumed to be spherical, is termed 
the Brinell hardness number (HB) in accord- 
ance with the following equation: 

HB = P/[(ttD/2)(D - \/D 2 - /)] 
where: 

HB = Brinell hardness number, 
P = applied load, kgf, 
D = diameter of the steel ball, mm, and 
d = average diameter of the indentation, 
mm. 

Note 8 — The Brinell hardness number is more con- 
veniently secured from standard tables which show 
numbers corresponding to the various indentation di- 
ameters, usually in increments of 0.05 mm. 

16.1.2 The standard Brinell test using a 10- 
mm ball employs a 3000-kgf load for hard ma- 
terials and a 1500 or 500-kgf load for thin sec- 
tions or soft materials (see Supplement II on 
Steel Tubular Products, Section S 8). Other 
loads and different size indentors may be used 
when specified. In reporting hardness values, 
the diameter of the ball and the load must be 
stated except when a 10-mm ball and 3000-kgf 
load are used. 

16.1.3 A range of hardness can properly be 
specified only for quenched and tempered or 
normalized and tempered material. For an- 
nealed material a maximum figure only should 
be specified. For normalized material a mini- 
mum or a maximum hardness may be speci- 
fied by agreement. In general, no hardness 
requirements should be- applied to untreated 
material. 

16.1.4 Brinell hardness may be required 
when tensile properties are not specified. 
When agreed upon, hardness tests can be sub- 
stituted for tension tests in order to expedite 
testing of a large number of duplicate pieces 
from the same lot. 

16.2 Apparatus— Equipment shall meet the 
following requirements: 

16.2.1 Testing Machine — A Brinell hard- 



A 370 



ness testing machine is acceptable for use over 
a loading range within which its load measur- 
ing device is accurate within 3 percent. 

16.2.2 Micrometer Microscope — The mi- 
crometer microscope or equivalent device for 
measuring diameter or depth of indentation is 
adjusted so that throughout the range covered 
the error of reading does not exceed 0.02 mm. 

16.2.3 Standard Ball— The standard ball 
for Brinell hardness testing is 10 mm (0.3937 
in.) in diameter with a deviation from this 
value of not more than 0.01 mm (0.0004 in.) 
in any diameter. A ball suitable for use must 
not show a permanent change in diameter 
greater than 0.01 mm (0.0004 in.) when 
pressed with a force of 3000 kgf against the 
test specimen,. 

16.3 Test Specimen — Brinell hardness tests 
are made on prepared areas and sufficient 
metal must be removed from the surface to 
eliminate decarburized metal and other sur- 
face irregularities. The thickness of the piece 
tested must be such that no bulge or other 
marking showing the effect of the load ap- 
pears on the side of the piece opposite the in- 
dentation. 

16.4 Procedure: 

16.4.1 It is essential that the applicable 
product specifications state clearly the posi- 
tion at which Brinell hardness indentations 
are to be made and the number of such in- 
dentations required. The distance of the cen- 
ter of the indentation from the edge of the 
specimen or edge of another indentation must 
be at least three times the diameter of the in- 
dentation. 

16.4.2 Apply the load for a minimum of 
10 s. : 

16.4.3 Measure two diameters of the inden- 
tation at right angles to the nearest 0.1 mm, 
estimate to the nearest 0.05 mm, and average 
to the nearest 0.05 mm. If the two diameters 
differ by more than 0.1 mm, discard the read- 
ings and make a new indentation. 

16.4.4 Do not use a steel ball on steels hav- 
ing a hardness over 444 HB nor a carbide ball 
over 627 HB. The Brinell test is not recom- 
mended for materials having a HB over 627. 

16.5 Detailed Procedure— For detailed re- 
quirements of this test, reference shall be 
made to the latest revision of Method E 10, 



17. Portable Hardness Test 

17.1 Portable Testers— Under certain cir- 
cumstances, it may be desirable to substitute 
a portable Brinell testing instrument, which 
is calibrated to give equivalent results to those 
of a standard Brinell machine on a comparison 
test bar of approximately the same hardness 
as the material to be tested. 

17.2 Detailed Procedure— Tor detailed re- 
quirements of the portable test, reference 
shall be made to the latest revision of Method 
E 110. 

18. Rockwell Test 

18.1 Description: 

18.1.1 In this test a hardness value is ob- 
tained by using a direct-reading testing ma- 
chine which measures hardness by determin- 
ing the depth of penetration of a diamond 
point or a steel ball into the specimen under 
certain' arbitrarily fixed conditions. A minor 
load of 10 kgf is first applied which causes an 
initial penetration, sets the penetrator on the 
material and holds it in position. A major load 
which depends on the scale being used is ap- 
plied increasing the depth of indentation. The 
major load is removed and, with the minor 
load still acting, the Rockwell number, which 
is proportional to the difference in penetra- 
tion between the major and minor loads, is 
read directly on the dial gage. This is an arbi- 
trary number which increases with increasing 
hardness. The scales most frequently used are 
as follows: 



Scale 
Symbol 

B 
C 



Penetrator 



Me-in. steel ball 
Diamond brale 



Major 

Load, 

kgf 

100 
150 



Minor 
Load, 

kgf 

10 
10 



18.1.2 Rockwell superficial hardness ma- 
chines are used for the testing of very thin 
steel or thin surface layers. Loads of 15, 30, 
or 45 kgf are applied on a hardened steel ball 
or diamond penetrator, to cover the same 
range of hardness values as for the heavier 
loads. The superficial hardness scales are as 
follows: 



A 370 



Scale 
Symbol 

15T 
30T 
45T 

15N 
30N 

45N 



Penetrator 



Me-in. steel ball 
Mfi-in. steel ball 
Me-in. steel ball 
Diamond brale 
Diamond brale 
Diamond brale 



Major 

Load, 

kgf 

15 
30 
45 
15 
30 
45 



Minor 
Load, 

kgf 

3 
3 
3 
- 3 
3 
3 



18.2 Reporting Hardness — In reporting 
hardness values, the hardness number should 
always precede the scale symbol, 96 HRB, 40 
HRC, 75 HR15N, or 77 HR30T. 

18.3 Test Blocks — Machines should be 
checked to make certain they are in good or- 
der by means of standardized Rockwell test 
blocks. 

18.4 Detailed Procedure— For detailed re- 
quirements of this test, reference shall be 
made to the latest revision of Methods E 18. 

Charpy Impact Testing 

18. Description 

19.1 A Charpy impact test is a dynamic 
test in which a selected specimen, machined 
or surface ground and notched, is struck and 
broken by a single blow in a specially designed 
testing machine and the energy absorbed in- 
breaking the specimen is measured. The en- 
ergy values determined are qualitative com- 
parisons on a selected specimen and although 
frequently specified as an acceptance criterion, 
they cannot be converted into energy figures 
that would serve for engineering calculations. 
Percentage shear fracture and mils of lateral 
expansion opposite the notch are other fre- 
quently used criteria of acceptance for Charpy 
V-notch impact test specimens. 

19.2 Testing temperatures other than am- 
bient temperature are often specified in the 
individual product specifications. Although 
the testing temperature is sometimes gov- 
erned by the service temperature, the two 
may not be identical. 

19.3 Further information on the signifi- 
cance of impact testing appears in Supple- 
ment V. 

20. Test Specimens 

20.1 Selection and Number of Tests: 
20.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, longitu- 



dinal test specimens shall be used with the 
notch perpendicular to the surface of the ob- 
ject being tested. 

20.1.2 An impact test shall consist of three 
specimens taken from a single test coupon or 
test location. 

20.2 Size and Type; 

20.2.1 The type of specimen desired, 
Charpy V-notch Type A or Charpy keyhole 
notch Type B, shown in Fig. 11, should be 
specified. 

20.2.2 For material less than 7i 6 in. (11 
mm) thick, subsize test specimens shall be 
used. They shall be made to the following di- 
mensions and to the tolerances shown in 
Fig. 11: 

10 by 7.5 mm 
' 10 by 6.7 mm 
10 by 5 mm 
10 by 3.3 mm 
10 by 2.5 mm 

The base of the notch shall be perpendicular 
to the 10-mm- wide face. 

20.2.3 When subsize specimens are re- 
quired, the specified energy level or test tem- 
perature, or both, shall be reduced as agreed 
upon by purchaser and supplier. 

Note 9 — The Charpy U-notch specimen may be 
substituted for the keyhold specimen. A sketch of the 
U-notch specimen may be found as Fig. 4 (Specimen 
Type C) in Methods E 23. 

20.3 Notch Preparation: 

20.3.1 Particular attention must be paid to 
the machining of V-notches as it has been 
demonstrated that extremely minor variations 
in notch radius may result in very erratic test 
data. Tool marks at the bottom of the notch 
must be carefully avoided. 

20.3.2 Keyhole notches shall be made by 
drilling the round hole and then cutting the 
slot by any feasible means. The drilling must 
be done carefully with a slow feed. Care must 
also be exercised in cutting the slot to see that 
the surface of the drilled hole is not damaged. 

21. Testing Apparatus and Conditions 

21.1 General Characteristics: 

21.1.1 A Charpy impact machine is one in 
which a notched specimen is broken by a 
single blow of a freely swinging pendulum. 
The pendulum is released from a fixed height, 
so that the energy of the blow is fixed and 
known. The height to which the pendulum 



A 370 



rises in its swing after breaking the specimen 
is measured and used to determine the resid- 
ual energy of the pendulum. The specimen is 
supported horizontally as a simple beam with 
the axis of the notch vertical. It is struck in 
the middle of the face opposite the notch. 

21.1.2 Charpy machines used for testing 
steel generally strike the specimen with an 
energy of from 220 to 265 ft-lbf (298 to 359 
J) and a linear velocity at the point of impact 
of 16 to 19 ft (4.88 to 5.80 m)/s. Sometimes 
machines of lighter capacity are used. 

21.2 Calibration {Accuracy and Sensitivity ): 

21.2.1 Charpy impact machines shall be 
calibrated and adjusted in accordance with 
the requirements of the latest revision of 
Methods E 23. 

21.2.2 The indicator should have an error 
not greater than 1 ft-lbf (1.4 J) as calibrated 
by the prescribed procedure. 

21.2.3 The dimensions of the pendulum 
should be such that the center of percussion 
is at the point of impact with an error not 
greater than 1 percent of the distance from 
the axis of rotation to the point of impact. 

21.2.4 The dimensions of the specimen sup- 
ports and striking edge shall conform to Fig. 
12. 

21.3 Temperature: 

21.3.1 The effect of variations in tempera- 
cure on Charpy test results is sometimes very 
great and this variable shall be closely con- 
trolled. The actual temperature at which each 
specimen, is broken shall be reported. 

21.3.2 Tests are often specified to be run 
at low temperatures. These low temperatures 
can be obtained readily in the laboratory by 
the use of chilled liquids such as; water, ice 
plus water, dry ice plus organic solvents, liquid 
nitrogen, or chilled gases. Specimens to be 
tested at low temperatures shall be held at the 
specified temperature for at least 5 min in 
liquid coolants and 60 min in gaseous environ- 
ments. 

21.3.3 For elevated-temperature tests, the 
specimens shall preferably be immersed in an 
agitated oil, or other suitable liquid bath and 
held at temperature for at least 10 min; if 
samples are heated in an oven they must be 
held in the oven for at least 60 min . 

21.3.4 When tested at temperatures other 
than ambient, specimens shall be inserted in 
the machine and broken within 5 s so as to 



minimize the change of temperature prior to 
breaking. 

21.3.5 Tongs for handling the test speci- 
mens, and centering devices used to ensure 
proper location of the test on the anvil of the 
impact tester, shall be at the same relative 
temperature as the test specimen prior to each 
test so as not to affect the temperature of the 
test specimen at the notch. 

22. Test Results 

22.1 The result of an impact test shall be 
the average (arithmetic mean) of the results of 
the three specimens. 

22.2 When the acceptance criteria are based 
on absorbed energy, not more than one specir 
men may exhibit a value below the specified 
minimum average, and in no case shall an 
individual value be below either two thirds of 
the specified minimum average or 5 ft-lbf 
(6.8 J), whichever is greater, subject to the 
retest provisions of 22.2. 1 . 

22.2.1 If more than one specimen is below 
the specified minimum average, or if one value 
is below two thirds of the specified minimum 
average, a retest of three additional speci- 
mens shall be made, each of which shall have a 
value equal to or exceeding the specified 
minimum average value. 

22.3 When the acceptance criteria are based 
on lateral expansion, the value for each of 
the specimens must equal or exceed the 
specified minimum value subject to the retest 
provision of 22.3.1. 

22.3.1 If the value on one specimen falls 
below the specified minimum value, and not 
below two thirds of the specified minimum 
value, and if the average of the three specimens 
equals or exceeds the specified minimum value, 
a retest of three additional specimens shall be 
made. The value for each of the three retest 
specimens must equal or exceed the specified 
minimum value. 

23. Acceptance Criteria 

23.1 Impact Strength — In some applica- 
tions, impact tests are specified to determine 
the behavior of the metal when subjected to a 
single application of a load that produces mul- 
tiaxial stresses associated with a notch with 
high rates of loading, in some cases at high or 
low temperature. Data are reported in terms 



A 370 



of foot-pounds of absorbed energy at the test 
temperature. 

23.2 Ductile- to- Brittle Transition Tempera- 
ture — Body-centered-cubic or ferritic alloys 
exhibit a significant change in behavior when 
impact tested over a range of temperatures. 
At elevated temperatures, impact specimens 
fracture by a shear mechanism absorbing large 
amounts of energy; at low temperatures they 
fracture brittlely by a cleavage mechanism ab- 
sorbing little energy. The transition from one 
type of behavior to the other has been de- 
fined in various ways for specification pur- 
poses: (/ ) the temperature corresponding to a 
specific energy level; (2) the temperature at 
which Charpy V-notch specimens exhibit 
some specific value of cleavage (shiny, fac- 
etted appearance, often termed brittle or 
crystalline) and shear (often termed ductile or 
fibrous) fractures. This temperature is com- 
monly called the fracture appearance transi- 
tion temperature or FATTn where "«" is the 
percentage of shear fracture. FATT50 is most 
frequently specified; (3) the temperature at 
which the lateral expansion (increase in speci- 
men width on the compression side, opposite 
the notch, of the fractured Charpy V-notch 
specimen, Fig. 13) is some specified amount 
measured in thousandths of an inch (mils). 

23.2.1 Energy Level— Energy level as de- 
termined on the Charpy V-notch impact test 
has been shown to have fairly good correlation 
with service failures and also with the nil-duc- 
tility transition temperature determined by 
the drop-weight test (Method E 208). Spe- 
cific requirements should be based on material 
capability and either service experience or 
correlations with the drop weight test or other 
valid tests for fracture toughness. The test 
temperature must be specified. 

23:2.2, Fracture Appearance Transition 
Temperature, FATTn : 

23.2.2.1 Determination of Percent Shear 
Fracture— The percentage of shear fracture 
may be determined by any of the following 
methods: (/) Measure the length and width of 
the cleavage portion of the fracture surface, as 
shown in Fig. 14, and determine the percent 
shear from either Table 4 or Table 5 depend- 
ing on the units of measurement; (2) compare 
the appearance of the fracture of the specimen 
with a fracture appearance chart such as that 
shown in Fig. 15; (3) magnify the fracture sur- 



face and compare it to a precalibrated overlay 
chart or measure the percent shear fracture 
by means of a plani meter; or (4) photograph 
the fracture surface at a suitable magnification 
and measure the percent shear fracture by 
means of a planimeter. 

23.2.2.2 Determination of Transition Tem- 
perature — For determining the transition tem- 
perature, break at least four specimens that 
have been taken from .comparable locations. 
Break each specimen at a different tempera- 
ture, but in a range of temperature that will 
produce fractures within the range of ±25 
percent of the specified value, /?, of shear. 
Plot the percent shear fracture against the 
test temperature and determine the transition 
by graphic interpolation (extrapolation is not 
permitted). 

23.2.3 Mils of Lateral Expansion: 
23.2.3.1 Determination of Lateral Expan- 
sion — The method for measuring lateral ex- 
pansion must take into account the fact that 
the fracture path seldom bisects the point of 
maximum expansion on both sides of a speci- 
men. One half of a broken specimen may in- 
clude the maximum expansion for both sides, 
one side only, or neither. The technique used 
must therefore provide an expansion value 
equal to the sum of the higher of the two val- 
ues obtained for each side by measuring the 
two halves separately. The amount of expan- 
sion on each side of each half must be meas- 
ured relative to the plane defined by the un- 
deformed portion of the side of the specimen. 
Expansion may be measured by using a gage 
similar to that shown in Figs. 16 and 17. 
Measure the two broken halves individually. 
First, though, check the sides perpendicular 
to the notch to ensure that no burrs were 
formed on these sides during impact testing; 
if such burrs exist, they must be removed, for 
example, by rubbing on emery cloth, making 
sure that the protrusions being measured are 
not rubbed during the removal of the burr. 
Next, place the halves together so that the 
compression sides are facing one another. Take 
one half and press it firmly against the refer- 
ence supports, with the protrusion against the 
gage anvil. Note the reading, then repeat this 
step with the other broken half, ensuring that 
the same side of the specimen is measured. 
The larger of the two values is the expansion 
of that side of the specimen. Next, repeat this 



11 



procedure to measure the protrusions on the 
opposite side, then add the larger values 
obtained for each side. Measure each speci- 
men. 

Note 10 — Examine each fracture surface to ascer- 
tain that the protrusions have not been damaged by 
contacting the anvil, machine mounting surface, etc. 
Such samples should be discarded since this may cause 
erroneous readings. 

23 .2.3.2 Determination of Transition Tem- 
perature — For determining the transition tem- 
perature, break a sufficient number of speci- 



A370 

mens over a range of temperatures such tha' 
the temperature producing the specified lat 
era! expansion may be determined by graphic 
interpolation (extrapolation is not permitted) 
23.3 Report— Test reports shall include the 
test temperature and energy value (foot- 
pounds) for each test specimen broken. Wher 
specified in the product specification the per- 
cent shear fracture or mils of lateral expan- 
sion, or both, shall also be reported for each 
test specimen broken. 



SUPPLEMENTS 



I. STEEL BAR PRODUCTS 



51. Scope 

■ Sl.l This supplement delineates only those 
details which are peculiar to hot-rolled and 
cold-finished steel bars and are not covered in 
the general section of these methods. 

52. Orientation of Test Specimens 

S2.1 Carbon steel bars and bar-size shapes, 
due to their relatively small cross-sectional 
dimensions, are customarily tested in the lon- 
gitudinal direction. 

* S2.2 Alloy steel bars and bar-size shapes 
are usually tested in the longitudinal direction. 
In special cases where size permits and the 
fabrication or service of a part justifies testing 
in a transverse direction, the selection and lo- 
cation of test or tests are a matter of agree- 
ment between the manufacturer and the pur- 
chaser. 

53. Tension Test 

S3.1 Carbon Steel Bars— Carbon steel bars 



are not commonly specified to tensile require- 
ments in the as-rolled condition for sizes of 
rounds, squares, hexagons, and octagons un- 
der V 2 in. (13 mm) in diameter or distance 
between parallel faces nor for other bar-size 
sections, other than flats, less than 1 in. 2 (645, 
mm 2 ) in cross-sectional area. 

53.2 Alloy Steel Bars — Alloy steel bars are 
usually not tested in the as-rolled condition. 

53. 3 When tension tests are specified, the 
recommended practice for selecting test speci- 
mens for hot-rolled and cold-finished steel bars 
of various sizes shall be in accordance with 
Table 7, unless otherwise specified. 



S4. Bend Test 

S4;l When bend tests are specified, the rec- 
ommended practice for hot-rolled and cold- 
finished steel bars shall be in accordance with 
Table 6: 



II. STEEL TUBULAR PRODUCTS 



55. Scope 

S5.1 This supplement covers definitions 
and methods of testing peculiar to tubular 
products which are not covered in the general 
section of these methods. 

56. Tension Test 

S6.1 Longitudinal Test Specimens: 
S6.1.1. It is standard practice to use ten- 
sion test specimens of full-size tubular sections 
within the limit of the testing equipment (Fig. 
20 (d)). Snug-fitting metal plugs should be in- 
serted far enough in the end of such tubular 



specimens to permit the testing machine 
jaws to grip the specimens properly without 
crushing. A design that may be used for such 
plugs is shown in Fig. 18. The plugs shall not 
extend into that part of the specimen on which 
the elongation is measured (Fig. 18). Care 
should be exercised to see that insofar as 
practicable, the load in such cases is applied 
axially. The length of the full-section speci- 
men depends on the gage length prescribed 
for measuring the elongation. 

S6.1.2 Unless otherwise required by the 
individual product specification, the gage 



12 



# 



A 370 



length for furnace- welded pipe is normally 8 
in. (200 mm), except that for nominal sizes 
Z A in. and smaller, the gage length shall be 
as follows: 

Nominal Size, in. Gage Length, in. (mm) 

: V 4 and V 2 6 (150) 

7 8 and 7' 4 4 (100) 

' ■ V 8 . 2 (50) 

56.1.3 For seamless and electric-welded 
pipe and tubes the gage length is 2 in. How- 
ever, for tubing having an outside diameter of 

/s in. (10 mm) or less, it is customary to use 
a gage length equal to four times the outside 
diameter when elongation values comparable 
to larger specimens are required. 

56.1.4 To determine the cross-sectional 
area of the full-section specimen, measure- 
ments shall be recorded as the average or 
mean between the greatest and least measure- 
ments of the outside diameter and the aver- 
age or mean wall thickness, to the nearest 
0.001 in. (0.025 mm) and the cross-sectional 
area is determined by the following equation: 

A = 3.1416*(Z) - /) 
where: 

A = sectional area, in. 2 
D = outside diameter, in., and 
/ = thickness of tube wall, in. 

Note 11 — There exist other methods of cross-sec- 
tional area determination, such as by weighing of the 
specimens, which are equally accurate or appropriate 
for the purpose. 

S6.2 Longitudinal Strip Test Specimens: 
;S6.2.1 For larger sizes of tubular products 
which cannot be tested in full-section, longi- 
tudinal test specimens are obtained from strips 
cut from the tube or pipe as indicated in Fig. 
19. For furnace-welded tubes or pipe the 8-in. 
gage length specimen as shown in Fig. 20 (b), 
or with both edges parallel as in Fig. 20 {a) is 
standard, the specimen being located at ap- 
proximately 90 deg from the weld. For seam- 
less and electric-welded tubes or pipe, the 2- 
in. gage length specimen as shown in Fig. 20 
(c) is standard, the specimen being located 
approximately 90 deg from the weld in the 
case of electric- welded tubes. The specimen 
shown in Fig. 20 (a) may be used as an alter- 
nate for seamless and electric- welded tubes 
or pipe. Specimens of the type shown in Fig. 
20 (a) 9 (b), (c), may be tested with grips hav- 
ing a surface contour corresponding to the 
curvature of the tubes. When grips with curved 



faces are not available, the ends of the speci- 
mens may be flattened without heating. 
Standard tension test specimens, as shown in 
specimen No. 4 of Fig. 21, are nominally 
IV2 in. (38 mm) wide in the gage length sec- 
tion. When sub-size specimens are necessary 
due to the dimensions and character of the 
material to be tested, specimens 1, 2, or 3 
shown in Fig. 21 where applicable, are con- 
sidered standard. For tubes S A in. (19 mm) 
and over in wall thickness, the test specimen 
shown in Fig. 5 (Note 12) may be used. 

Note 12 — Standard round tension test specimen 
with 2-in. gage length. 

S6.2.2 The width should be measured at 
each end of the gage length to determine par- 
allelism and also at the center. The thickness 
should be measured at the center and used 
with the center measurement of the width to 
determine the cross- sectional area. The cen- 
ter width dimension should be recorded to the 
nearest 0.005 in. (0.127 mm), and the thick- 
ness measurement to the nearest 0.001 in. 
When the specimen shown in Fig. 5 (Note 12) is 
used, the diameter is measured at the center of 
the specimen to the nearest 0.00 1 in. (0,025 mm). 

S6.3 Transverse Test Specimens. 

S6.3.1 In general, transverse tension tests 
are not recommended for tubular products, 
in sizes smaller than 8 in. in nominal diameter. 
When required, transverse tension test speci- 
mens may be taken from rings cut from ends 
of tubes or pipe as shown in Fig. 22. Flatten- 
ing of the specimen may be done either after 
separating it from the tube as in Fig. 22 (a), 
or before separating it as in Fig. 22 (6), and 
may be done hot or cold; but if the flattening 
is done cold, the specimen may subsequently 
be normalized. Specimens from tubes or pipe 
for which heat treatment is specified, after be- 
ing flattened either hot or cold, shall be given 
the same treatment as the tubes or pipe. For 
tubes or pipe having a wall thickness of less 
than 3 /4 in. (19 mm), the transverse test speci- 
men shall be of the form and dimensions shown 
in Fig. 23 and either or both surfaces may be 
machined to secure uniform thickness. For 
tubes having a sufficiently heavy wall thick- 
ness the test specimen shown in Fig. 5 (Note 
12) may be used. The elongation requirements 
for the 2-in, gage length in the product specifi- 
cation shall apply to the gage length as specified 



13 



4 



A 370 



in Fig. 5, Specimens for transverse tension tests 
on welded steel tubes or pipe to determine 
strength of welds, shall be located perpendicular 
to the welded seams with the weld at about the 
middle of their length. 

S6.3.2 The width should be measured at 
each end of the gage length to determine par- 
allelism and also at the center. The thickness 
should be measured at the center and used 
with the center measurement of the width to 
determine the cross-sectional area. The center 
width dimension should be recorded to the 
nearest 0.005 in. (0.127 mm), and the thickness 
measurement to the nearest 0.001 in. (0,025 
mm). When the specimen shown in Fig. 5 
(Note 12) is used, the diameter is measured at 
the center of the specimen to the nearest 0.001 
in. 

S7. Determination of Transverse Yield 
Strength, Hydraulic Ring-Expansion 
Method 

57.1 Until recently, the transverse yield 
strength, when required on tubular products, 
has been determined, as described in the gen- 
eral section of these methods, from standard 
tension test coupons cut transversely from the 
tubular sections. Due to the curvature on such 
coupons it is necessary to cold straighten them. 
It has long been recognized that the cold work 
introduced by straightening changes the me- 
chanical, properties so that the yield strength 

"obtained is not truly representative of the 
yield strength in the original tubular section: 
The transverse yield strength is highly impor- 
tant" on some classes of tubular products, such 
as line pipe, and a method for determining 
the true yield strength has been desirable for 
some time. 

57.2 A testing machine and method for de- 
termining the transverse yield strength from 
an annular ring specimen, have been devel- 
oped and described in S7.3 through S7.5. 

57.3 A diagrammatic vertical cross-sec- 
tional sketch of the testing machine is shown 
in Fig. 24. 

57.4 In determining the transverse yield 
strength on this machine, a short ring (com- 
monly 3 in. (76 mm) in length) test specimen 
is used. After the large circular nut is removed 
from the machine, the wall thickness of the 
ring specimen is determined and the specimen 
is telescoped over the oil resistant rubber gas- 



ket. The nut is then replaced, but is not turned 
down tight against the specimen. A slight 
clearance is left between the nut and speci- 
men for the purpose of permitting free radial 
movement of the specimen as it is being tested. 
Oil under pressure is then admitted to the in- 
terior of the rubber gasket through the pres- 
sure line under the control of a suitable valve. 
An accurately calibrated pressure gage serves 
to measure oil pressure. Any air in the system 
is removed through the bleeder line. As the 
oil pressure is increased, the rubber gasket 
expands which in turn stresses the specimen 
circumferentially. As the pressure builds up, 
the lips of the rubber gasket act as a seal to 
prevent oil leakage. With continued increase 
in pressure, the ring specimen is subjected to 
a tension stress and elongates accordingly. 
The entire outside circumference of the ring 
specimen is considered as the gage length and 
the strain is measured with a suitable exten- 
someter which will be described later. When 
the desired total strain or extension under 
load is reached on the extensometer, the oil 
pressure in pounds per square inch is read and 
by employing Barlow's formula, the unit yield 
strength is calculated. The yield strength, thus 
determined, is a true result since the test 
specimen has not been cold worked by flat- 
tening and closely approximates the same con- 
dition as the tubular section from which it is 
cut. Further, the test closely simulates service 
conditions in pipe lines. One testing machine 
unit may be used for several different sizes of 
pipe by the use of suitable rubber gaskets and 
adapters. 

Note 13 — Barlow's formula may be stated two 
ways: 

(7) P = 2St/D 
(2) S = PDjlt 

where: 

P. = internal hydrostatic pressure, psi, 

5 '"=. unit circumferential stress in the wall of the 

tube produced by the internal hydrostatic 

pressure, psi, 
t = thickness of the tube wall, in., and 
D = outside diameter of the tube, in. 

S7.5 A roller chain type extensometer which 
has been found satisfactory for measuring the 
elongation of the ring specimen is shown in 
Figs. 25 and 26. Figure 25 shows the exten- 
someter in position, but undamped, on a ring 
specimen. A small pin, through which the 
strain is transmitted to and measured by 



\A 



A 370 



the dial gage, extends through the hollow 
threaded stud. When the extensometer is 
clamped, as shown in Fig. 26, the desired ten- 
sion which is necessary to hold the instrument 
in place and to remove any slack, is exerted 
on the roller chain by the spring. Tension on 
the spring may be regulated as desired by the 
knurled thumb screw. By removing or adding 
rollers, the roller chain may be adapted for 
different sizes of tubular sections. 

S8. Hardness Tests 

58.1 Hardness tests are made either on the 
outside or the inside surfaces on the end of the 
tube as appropriate. 

58.2 The standard 3000-kgf Brinell load 
may cause too much deformation in a thin- 
walled tubular specimen. In this case the 500- 
kgf load shall be applied, or inside stiffening by 
means of an internal anvil should be used. 
Brinell testing shall not be applicable to tubu- 
lar products less than 2 in. (51 mm) in outside 
diameter, or less than 0.200 in. (5.1 mm) in 
wall thickness. 

58.3 The Rockwell hardness tests are nor- 
mally made on the inside surface, a flat on the 
outside surface, or on the wall cross-section 
depending upon the product limitation. Rock- 
well hardness tests are not performed on tubes 
smaller than 5 /i 6 in. (7.9 mm) in outside di- 
ameter, nor are they performed on the inside 
surface of tubes with less than V 4 in. (6.4 mm) 
inside diameter. Rockwell hardness tests are 
not performed on annealed tubes with walls 
less than 0.065 in. (1.65 mm) thick or cold 
worked or heat treated tubes with walls less 
than 0.049 in. (1.24 mm) thick. For tubes 
with wall thicknesses less than those permit- 
ting the regular Rockwell hardness test, the 
Superficial Rockwell test is sometimes sub- 
stituted. Transverse Rockwell hardness read- 
ings can be made on tubes with a wall thickness 
of 0.187 in, (4.75 mm) or greater. The curva- 
ture and the wall thickness of the specimen 
impose limitations on the Rockwell hardness 
test. When a comparison is made between 
Rockwell determinations made on the outside 
surface and determinations made on the inside 
surface, adjustment of the readings will be re- 
quired to compensate for the effect of curva- 
ture. The Rockwell B scale is used on all mate- 
rials having an expected hardness range of B 
to B 100. The Rockwell C scale is used on 



material having an expected hardness range of 
C 20 to C 68. 

58.4 Superficial Rockwell hardness tests 
are normally performed on the outside surface 
whenever possible and whenever excessive 
spring back is not encountered. Otherwise, 
the tests may be performed on the inside. Su- 
perficial Rockwell hardness tests shall not be 
performed on tubes with an inside diameter 
of less than l A in. (6.4 mm). The wall thickness 
limitations for the Superficial Rockwell hard- 
ness test are given in Tables 8 and 9. 

58.5 When the outside diameter, inside di- 
ameter, or wall thickness precludes the ob- 
taining of accurate hardness values, tubular 
products shall be specified to tensile proper- 
ties and so tested. 

S9. Manipulating Tests 

S9.1 The following tests are made to prove 
ductility of certain tubular products: 

59.1.1 Flattening Tesf— The flattening test 
as commonly made on specimens cut from 
tubular products is conducted by subjecting 
rings from the tube or pipe to a prescribed de- 
gree of flattening between parallel plates (Fig. 
22). The severity of the flattening test is meas- 
ured by the distance between the parallel 
plates and is varied according to the dimen- 
sions of the tube or pipe. The flattening test 
specimen should not be less than 2V 2 in. (63.5 
mm) in length and should be flattened cold to 
the extent required by the applicable mate- 
rial specifications. 

59.1.2 Reverse Flattening Test— The re- 
verse flattening test is designed primarily for 
application to electric-welded tubing for the 
detection of lack of penetration or overlaps 
resulting from flash removal in the weld. The 
specimen consists of a length of tubing approx- 
imately 4 in. (102 mm) long which is split lon- 
gitudinally 90 deg on each side of the weld. 
The sample is then opened and flattened with 
the weld at the point of maximum bend (Fig. 
27). 

59.1.3 Crush Test — The crush test, some- 
times referred to as an upsetting test, is usu- 
ally made on boiler and other pressure tubes, 
for evaluating ductility (Fig. 28). The speci- 
men is a ring cut from the tube, usually about 
2V2 in. (63.5 mm) long. It is placed on end and 
crushed endwise by hammer or press to the 
distance prescribed by the applicable material 



15 



A 370 



specifications. 

59.1.4 Flange Test — The flange test is in- 
tended to determine the ductility of boiler 
tubes and their ability to withstand the opera- 
tion of bending into a tube sheet. The test is 
made on a ring cut from a tube, usually not 
less than 4 in. (100 mm) long and consists of 
having a flange turned over at right angles to 
the body -of the tube to the width required by 
the applicable material specifications.. The 
flaring tool and die block shown in Fig. 29 are 
recommended for use in making this test. 

59.1.5 Flaring Test — For certain types of 
pressure tubes, an alternate to the flange test 
is made. This test consists of driving a tapered 
mandrel having a slope of 1 in 10 as shown 
in Fig. 30 (a) or a 60 deg included angle as 
shown in Fig. 30 (b) into a section cut from 
the tube, approximately 4 in. (100 mm) in 
length, and thus expanding the specimen until 
the inside diameter has been increased to the 
extent required by the applicable material 
specifications. 

59.1.6 Bend Test — For pipe used for coiling 
in sizes 2 in. and under a bend test is made to 
determine its ductility and the soundness of 
weld. In this test a sufficient length of full-size 
pipe is bent cold through 90 deg around a cy- 
lindrical mandrel having a diameter 12 times 



the nominal diameter of the pipe. For close 
coiling, the pipe is bent cold through 180 deg 
around a mandrel having a diameter 8 times 
the nominal diameter of the pipe. 

S9.1.7 Transverse Guided Bend Test of 
Welds— This bend test is used to determine 
the ductility of fusion welds. The specimens 
used are approximately lV 2 in. (38 mm) wide, 
at least 6 in. (152 mm) in length with the weld 
at the center, and are machined in accordance 
with Fig. 31(c) for face and root bend tests and 
in accordance with Fig. 31(6) for side bend 
tests. The dimensions of the plunger shall, be 
as shown in Fig. 32 and the other dimensions 
of the bending jig shall be substantially as 
given in this same figure. A test shall consist 
of a face bend specimen and a root bend speci- 
men or two side bend specimens. A face bend 
test requires bending with the inside surface of 
the pipe against the plunger; a root bend test 
requires bending with the outside surface of 
the pipe against the plunger; and a side bend 
test requires bending so that one of the side 
surfaces becomes the convex surface of the 
bend specimen. 

S9. 1.7.1 Failure of the bend test depends 
upon the appearance of cracks in the area of 
the bend, of the nature and extent described 
in the product specifications. 



III. STEEL FASTENERS 



S10. Scope 

S.10..1 This supplement covers definitions 
and methods of testing peculiar to steel fas- 
teners which are not covered in the general 
section of Methods A 370. Standard tests re- 
quired by the individual product specifications 
are to be performed as outlined in the general 
section of these methods. 

S10.2 These tests are set up to facilitate 
production control testing and acceptance test- 
ing with certain more precise tests to be used 
for arbitration in case of disagreement over 
test results. 

SI 1. Tension Tests 

SI 1.1 It is preferred that bolts be tested 
full size, and it is customary, when so testing 
bolts to specify a minimum ultimate load in 
pounds, rather than a minimum ultimate 
strength in pounds per square inch. Three 
times the bolt nominal diameter has been 



established as the minimum bolt length subject 
to the tests described in the remainder of this 
section . Sections S 1 1 . 1 . 1 through S 1 1 . 1 . 3 apply 
when testing bolts full size. Section SI 1.1.4 
shall apply where the individual product 
specifications permit the use of machined 
specimens. 

SI 1.1.1 Proof Load — Due to particular uses 
of certain classes of bolts it is desirable to be 
able to stress them, while in use, to a specified 
value without obtaining any permanent set. 
To be certain of obtaining this quality the 
proof load is specified. The proof load test con- 
sists of stressing the bolt with a specified load 
which the bolt must withstand without per- 
manent set. An alternate test which deter- 
mines yield strength of a full size bolt is also 
allowed. Either of the following Methods, 1 
or 2, may be used but Method 1 shall be the 
arbitration method in case of any dispute as to 
acceptance of the bolts. 



i* 



A 370 



SI 1.1.2 Proof Load Testing Long Bolts — 
When full size tests are required, proof load 
Method 1 is to be limited in application to 
bolts whose length does not exceed 8 in. (203 
mm) or 8 times the nominal diameter, which- 
ever is greater. For bolts longer than 8 in. or 
8 times the nominal diameter, whichever is 
greater, proof load Method 2 shall be used. 

SI 1.1.2.1 Method 1, Length Measure- 
ment— The overall length of a straight bolt 
shall be measured at its true center line with 
an instrument capable of measuring changes 
in length of 0.0001 in. (0.0025 mm) with an ac- 
curacy of 0.0001 in. in any 0.001-in. (0.025- 
mm) range. The preferred method of measur- 
ing the length shall be between conical centers 
machined on the center line of the bolt, with 
mating centers on the measuring anvils. The 
head or body of the bolt shall be marked so 
that it can be placed in the same position for 
all measurements. The bolt shall be assembled 
in the testing equipment as outlined in SI 1.1.4, 
and the proof load specified in the product 
specification shall be applied. Upon release of 
this load the length of the bolt shall be again 
measured and shall show no permanent elon- 
gation. A tolerance of ±0.0005 in. (0.0127 mm) 
shall be allowed between the measurement 
made before loading and that made after load- 
ing. Variables, such as straightness and thread 
alignment (plus measurement error), may result 
in apparent elongation of the fasteners when 
the proof load is initially applied. In such cases, 
the fastener may be retested using a 3 percent 
greater load, and may be considered satis- 
factory if the length after this loading is the 
same as before this loading (within the 0.0005- 
in. tolerance for measurement error). 

SI 1.1.3 Proof Load-Time of Loading — The 
proof load is to be maintained for a period of 
10 s before release of load, when using Method 
1. 

SI 1.1.3.1 Method 2, Yield Strength— The 
bolt shall be assembled in the testing equip- 
ment as outlined in SIT. 1.4. As the load is ap- 
plied, the total elongation of the bolt or any 
part of the bolt which includes the exposed 
six threads shall be measured and recorded to 
produce a load-strain or a stress-strain dia- 
gram. The load or stress at an offset equal to 
0.2 percent, of the length of bolt occupied by 
6 full threads shall be determined by the 
method described in 13.2.1 of these methods, 



A 370. This load or stress shall not be less than 
that prescribed in the product specification. 

SI 1.1.4 Axial Tension Testing of Full Size 
Bolts — Bolts are to be tested in a holder with 
the load axially applied between the head and 
a nut or suitable fixture (Fig. 33), either of 
which shall have sufficient thread engagement 
to develop the full strength of the bolt. The nut 
or fixture shall be assembled on the bolt leaving 
six complete bolt threads unengaged between 
the grips, except for heavy hexagon structural 
bolts which shall have four complete threads 
unengaged between the grips. To meet the re- 
quirements of this test there shall be a tensile 
failure in the body or threaded section with 
no failure at the junction of the body and 
head. If it is necessary to record or report the 
tensile strength of bolts as psi values the stress 
area shall be calculated from the mean of the 
mean root and pitch diameters of Class 3 ex- 
ternal threads as follows: 

A s = 0.7854 (D - (0.9743)/*) 2 
where: 

A s = stress area, in. 2 , 
D = nominal diameter, in., and 
n = number of threads per inch. 

SI 1.1.5 Tension Testing of Full-Size Bolts 
with a Wedge — The purpose of this test is to 
obtain the tensile strength and demonstrate 
the "head quality" and ductility of a bolt with 
a standard head by subjecting it to eccentric 
loading. The ultimate load on the bolt shall be 
determined as described in SI 1.1.4, except 
that a 10-deg wedge shall be placed under the 
same bolt previously tested for the proof load 
(see SI 1.1.1). The bolt head shall be so placed 
that no corner of the hexagon or square takes 
a bearing load, that is, a flat of the head shall 
be aligned with the direction of uniform thick- 
ness of the wedge (Fig. 34). The wedge shall 
have an included angle of- 10 deg between its 
faces and shall have a thickness of one-half of 
the nominal bolt diameter at the short side of 
the hole. The hole in the wedge shall have the 
following clearance over the nominal size of 
the bolt, and its edges, top and bottom, shall 
be rounded to the following radius: 

Clearance Radius on 

in Hole, Corners of 

Nominal Bolt Size, in. in. (mm) Hole, in. (mm) 

V* to V 2 0.030(0.76) 0.030(0.76) 

7 16 to : y 4 0.050 (1.3) 0.060(1.5) 

Veto 1 0.063 (1.5) 0.060(1.5) 

l'/ 8 to 17 4 0.063 (1.5) 0.125 (3.2) 

1 7 B to \ l /l 0.094 (2.4) 0.125(3.2) 



A 370 



SI 1.1.6 Wedge Testing of HT Bolts 
Threaded to Head — For heat-treated bolts 
over 100 000 psi (690 MP a) minimum ten- 
sile strength and that are threaded 1 diam- 
eter and closer to the underside of the head, 
the wedge angle shall be 6 deg for sizes l A 
through 3 A in. (6.35 to 19.0 mm) and 4 deg 
for sizes over % in. 

S 1 1 .1 . 7 Tension Testing of Bolts Machined 
to Round Test Specimens: 
f. Sll.1.7.1 Bolts under lV 2 in. (38 mm) in 
diameter which require machined tests shall 
use a standard 7 2 -in., (13 mm) round 2-in. 
(51 -mm) gage length test specimen, turned 
concentric with the axis of the bolt, leaving 
the head and threaded section intact as in 
Fig. 35. Bolts of small cross-section which will 
not permit taking this standard test specimen 
shall have a turned section as large as feasible 
and concentric with the axis of the bolt. The 
gage length for measuring the elongation shall 
be four times the diameter of the specimen. 
Figure 36 illustrates examples of these small 
size specimens. 

SI 1.1.7.2 For bolts lV 2 in. and over in di- 
ameter, a standard V'2-in. round 2-in. gage 
length test specimen shall be turned from the 
bolt, having its axis midway between the cen- 
ter and outside surface of the body of the bolt 
as shown in Fig. 37. 

SI 1,1. 7. 3 Machined specimens are to be 
-tested in tension to determine the properties 
prescribed by the product specifications. The 
methods of testing and determination of prop- 
erties shall be in accordance with Section 13 
of these methods, A 370. 

512. Speed of Testing 

S12,l Speed of testing shall be as prescribed 
in the individual product specifications. 

513. Hardness Tests for Bolts 

SI 3.1 When specified, the bolts shall meet 
a hardness test. The Brinell or Rockwell hard- 
ness test is usually taken on the side or top of 
the bolt head. For final arbitration the hard- 
ness shall be taken on a transverse section 
through the threaded section of the bolt at a 



point one-quarter of the nominal diameter 
from the axis of the bolt. This section shall be 
taken at a distance from the end of the bolt 
which is equivalent to the diameter of the bolt. 
Due to possible distortion from the Brinell 
load, care shall be taken to see that this test 
meets all the provisions of 17.2 of the general 
section of these methods. Where the Brinell 
hardness test is impractical, the Rockwell 
hardness test shall be substituted. Rockwell 
hardness test procedures shall conform to 
Section 18 of these methods. 

514. Testing of Nuts 

. S14..1 Proof Load — A sample nut shall be 
assembled on a hardened threaded mandrel 
or on a bolt conforming to the particular speci- 
fication, A load axial with the mandrel or bolt 
and equal to the specified proof load of the nut 
shall be applied. The nut shall resist this load 
without stripping or rupture. If the threads of 
the mandrel are damaged during the test the 
individual test shall be discarded. The mandrel 
shall be threaded to American National Stand- 
ard Class 3 tolerance, except that the major , 
diameter shall be the minimum major diame- 
ter with a tolerance of +0.002 in. (0.051 mm). 
SI 4.2 Hardness Test— Rockwell hardness 
of nuts shall be determined on the top or bot- 
tom face of the nut. Brinell hardness shall be 
determined on the side of the nuts. Either 
method may be used at the option of the man- 
ufacturer, taking into account the size and 
grade of the nuts under test. When the stand- 
ard Brinell hardness test results in deforming 
the nut it will be necessary to use a minor 
load or substitute a Rockwell hardness test. 

515. Bars Heat Treated or Cold Drawn for 
Use in the Manufacture of Studs, Nuts 
or Other Bolting Material 

SI 5.1 When the bars as received by the 
manufacturer have been processed and proved 
to meet certain specified properties, it is not 
necessary to test the finished product when 
these properties have not been changed by 
the process of manufacture employed for the 
finished product. 



IV. ROUND WIRE PRODUCTS 



SI 6. Scope 

SI 61 This supplement covers the appara- 



tus, specimens and methods of testing peculiar 
to steel wire products which are not covered 
in the general section of Methods A 370. 



A 370 



51 7. Apparatus 

51 7.1 Gripping Devices — Grips of either 
the wedge or snubbing types as shown in Figs. 
B8 and 39 shall be used (Note 14). When using 
grips of either type, care shall be taken that the 
axis of the test specimen is located approximately 
at the center line of the head of the testing 
machine (Note 15). When using wedge grips the 
liners used behind the grips shall be of the proper 
thickness. 

Note 14 — Testing machines usually are equipped 
with wedge grips. These wedge grips, irrespective of the 
type of testing machine, may be referred to as the "usual 
type" of wedge grips. The usual type of wedge grips 
generally furnish a satisfactory means of gripping wire. 
For tests of specimens of wire which are liable to be cut 
at the edges by the "usual type" of wedge grips, the 
snubbing type gripping device has proved satisfactory. 

For testing round wire, the use of cylindrical seat in 
the wedge gripping device is optional. 

Note 15 — Any defect in a testing machine which 
may cause nonaxial application of load should be cor- 
rected. 

51 7.2 Pointed Micrometer — A micrometer 
with a pointed spindle and anvil suitable for 
reading the dimensions of the wire specimen 
at the fractured ends to the nearest 0.001 in. 
(0.025 mm) after breaking the specimen in the 
testing machine shall be used. 

51 8. Test Specimens 

-SI 8.1 Test specimens having the full cross- 
sectional area of the wire they represent shall 
be used. The standard gage length of the spec- 
imens shall be 10 in. (254 mm). However, if 
the determination of elongation values is not 
required, any convenient gage length is per- 
missible. The total length of the specimens 
shall be at least equal to the gage length (10 
in.) plus twice the length of wire required Tor 
the full use of the grip employed. For example, 
depending upon the type of testing machine 
and grips used, the minimum total length of 
specimen may vary from 14 to 24 in. (360 to 
610 mm) for a 10-in. gage length specimen. 

SI 8.2 Any specimen breaking in the grips 
shall be discarded and a new specimen tested. 

51 9. Elongation 

S19.1 In determining permanent elonga- 
tion, the ends of the fractured specimen shall 
be carefully fitted together and the distance 
between the gage marks measured to the 
nearest 0.01 in. (0.25 mm) with dividers and 



scale or other suitable device. The elongation 
is the increase in length of the gage length, 
expressed as a percentage of the original gage 
length. In reporting elongation values, both 
the percentage increase and the original gage 
length shall be given. 

519.2 In determining total elongation (elas- 
tic plus plastic extension) autographic or ex- 
tensometer methods may be employed. 

51 9.3 If fracture takes place outside of the 
middle third of the gage length, the elonga- 
tion value obtained may not be representative 
of the material. 

520. Reduction of Area 

520.1 The ends of the fractured specimen 
shall be carefully fitted together and the di- 
mensions of the smallest cross section meas- 
ured to the nearest 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) with 
a pointed micrometer. The difference between 
the area thus found and the area of the orig- 
inal cross section, expressed as a percentage 
of the original area, is the reduction of area. 

520.2 The reduction of area test is not rec- 
ommended in wire diameters less than 0.092 
in. (2.34 mm) due to the difficulties of meas- 
uring the reduced cross sections. 

521. Rockwell Hardness Test 

S21.1 With the exception of heat treated 
wire of diameter 0. 100 in. (2.54 mm) and larger, 
the Rockwell hardness test is not recommended 
for round wire. On such heat-treated wire the 
specimen shall be flattened on two parallel 
sides by grinding. For round wire the tensile 
strength test is greatly to be preferred to the 
Rockwell hardness test. 

522. Wrapping Test 

S22.1 This test, also referred to as a coiling 
test or as a wrap-around bend test, is some- 
times used as a means for testing the ductility 
of certain kinds of wire. The wrapping may 
be done by any hand or power device that will 
coil the wire closely about a mandrel of the 
specified diameter for a required number of 
turns without damage to the wire surface. The 
sample shall be considered to have failed if 
any cracks occur in the wire after the first com- 
plete turn. The test shall be repeated if a crack 
occurs in the first turn since the wire may have 
been bent locally to a radius less than that 
specified. 



w A37 ° 

S22.2 When the. wrapping test is used to larger than that used in the test when used as 
determine the adherence of coating for coated a measure of ductility, 
wires, the mandrel diameter is commonly 

V. NOTES ON SIGNIFICANCE OF NOTCHED-BAR IMPACT TESTING 



S23. Notch Behavior 

523.1 The Charpy and/ Izod type tests 
bring out notch, behavior (brittleness versus 
ductility) by applying a single overload of 
stress. The energy values determined are 
quantitative comparisons on a selected speci- 
men but cannot be converted into energy val- 
ues that would serve for engineering design 
calculations. The notch behavior indicated in 
an individual test applies only to the specimen 
size, notch geometry, and testing conditions 
involved and cannot be generalized to other 
sizes of specimens and conditions. 

523.2 The notch behavior of the face- cen- 
tered cubic metals and alloys, a large group of 
nonferrous materials and the austenitic steels 
can be judged from their common tensile prop- 
erties. If they are brittle in tension they will 
be brittle when notched, while if they are 
ductile in tension, they will be ductile when 
notched, except for unusually sharp or deep 
notches (much more severe than the standard 
Charpy or Izod specimens). Even low temper- 
atures do not alter this characteristic of these 
materials. In contrast, the behavior of the fer- 
.ritic steels under notch conditions cannot be 
predicted from their properties as revealed by 
the tension test. For the study of these mate- 
rials the Charpy and Izod type tests are ac- 
cordingly very useful. Some metals that dis- 
play normal ductility, in the tension test may 
nevertheless break in brittle fashion when 
tested or when used in the notched condition. 
Notched conditions include restraints to de- 
formation in directions perpendicular to the 
major stress, or multiaxial stresses, and stress 
concentrations. It is in this field that the 
Charpy and Izod tests prove useful for deter- 
mining the susceptibility of a steel to notch- 
brittle behavior though they cannot be directly 
used to appraise the serviceability of a struc- 
ture. 

523.3 The testing machine itself must be 
sufficiently rigid or tests on high-strength low- 



energy materials will result in excessive elas : 
tic energy losses either upward through the 
pendulum shaft or downward through the base 
of the machine. If the anvil supports, the pen- 
dulum striking edge, or the machine founda- 
tion bolts are not securely fastened, tests on 
ductile materials in the range of 80 ft-lbf 
(108 J) may actually indicate values in excess 
of 90 to 100 ft-lbf (122 to 136 J). 
S24. Notch Effect 

524.1 The notch results in a combination of 
multiaxial stresses associated with restraints 
to deformation in directions perpendicular to 
the major stress, and a stress concentration at 
the base of the notch. A severely notched con- 
dition is generally not desirable, and it be- 
comes of real concern in those cases in which 
it initiates a sudden and complete failure of 
the brittle type. Some metals can be deformed 
in a ductile manner even down to the low tem- 
peratures of liquid air, while others may crack. 
This difference in behavior can be best un- 
derstood by considering the cohesive strength 
of a material (or the property that holds it to- 
gether) and its relation to the yield point. In 
cases of brittle fracture, the cohesive strength 
is exceeded before significant plastic defor- 
mation occurs and the fracture appears crys- 
talline. In cases of the ductile or shear type of 
failure, considerable deformation precedes the 
final fracture and the broken surface appears 
fibrous instead of crystalline. In intermediate 
cases the fracture comes after a moderate 
amount of deformation and is part crystalline 
and part fibrous in appearance. 

524.2 When a notched bar is loaded, there 
is a normal stress across the base of the notch 
which tends to initiate fracture. The property 
that keeps it from cleaving, or holds it to- 
gether, is the "cohesive strength." The bar 
fractures when the normal stress exceeds the 
cohesive strength. When this occurs without 
the bar deforming it is the condition for brit- 
tle fracture. 



A 370 



524.3 In testing, though not in service be- 
cause of side effects, it happens more com- 
monly that plastic deformation precedes frac- 
ture. In addition to the normal stress, the 
applied load also sets up shear stresses which 
are about 45 deg to the normal stress. The 
elastic behavior terminates as soon as the 
shear stress exceeds the shear strength of the 
material and deformation or plastic yielding 
sets in. This is the condition for ductile fail- 
ure. 

524.4 This behavior, whether brittle or 
ductile, depends on whether the normal stress 
exceeds the cohesive strength before the shear 
stress exceeds the shear strength. Several im- 
portant facts of notch behavior follow from 
this. If the notch is made sharper or more 
drastic, the normal stress at the root of the 
notch will be increased in relation to the shear 
stress and the bar will be more prone to brit- 
tle fracture (see Table 10). Also, as the speed 
of deformation increases, the shear strength 
increases and the likelihood of brittle fracture 
increases. On the other hand, by raising the 
temperature, leaving the notch and the speed 
of deformation the same, the shear strength is 
lowered and ductile behavior is promoted, 
leading to shear failure. 

524.5 Variations in notch dimensions will 
seriously affect the results of the tests. Tests 
oh E4340 steel specimens 9 have shown the ef- 
fect of dimensional variations on Charpy re- 
sults (see Table 10). 

S25. Size Effect 

525.1 Increasing either the width or the 
depth of the specimen tends to increase the 
volume of metal subject to distortion, and by 
this factor tends to increase the energy ab- 
sorption when breaking the specimen. How- 
ever, any increase in size, particularly in width, 
also tends to increase the degree of restraint 
and by tending to induce brittle fracture, may 
decrease the amount of energy absorbed. 
Where a standard-size specimen is on the verge 
of brittle fracture, this is particularly true, and 
a double-width specimen may actually require 
less energy for rupture than one of standard 
width. 

525.2 In studies of such effects where the 
size of the material precludes the use of the 



standard specimen, as for example when the 
material is V 4 -in. plate, subsize specimens are 
necessarily used. Such specimens (see Fig. 6 
of Method E 23) are based on the Type A 
specimen of Fig. 4 of Method E 23. 

S25.3 General correlation between the en- 
ergy values obtained with specimens of differ- 
ent size or shape is not feasible, but limited 
correlations may be established for specifica- 
tion purposes on the basis of special studies of 
particular materials and particular specimens. 
On the other hand, in a study of the relative 
effect of process variations, evaluation by use 
of some arbitrarily selected specimen with 
some chosen notch will in most instances place 
the methods in their proper order. 

S26. Effects of Testing Conditions 

526.1 The testing conditions also affect the 
notch behavior. So pronounced is the effect of 
temperature on the behavior of steel when 
notched that comparisons are frequently made 
by examining specimen fractures and by plot- 
ting energy value and fracture appearance 
versus temperature from tests of notched bars 
at a series of temperatures. When the test 
temperature has been carried low enough to 
start cleavage fracture, there may be an ex- 
tremely sharp drop in impact value or there 
may be a relatively gradual falling off toward 
the lower temperatures. This drop in energy 
value starts when a specimen begins to ex- 
hibit some crystalline appearance in the frac- 
ture. The transition temperature at which this 
embrittling effect takes place varies consider- 
ably with the size of the part or test specimen 
and with the notch geometry. 

526.2 Some of the many definitions of 
transition temperature currently being used 
are: (1) the lowest temperature at which the 
specimen exhibits 1Q0 percent fibrous frac- 
ture, (2) the temperature where the fracture 
shows a 50 percent crystalline and a 50 per- 
cent fibrous appearance, (3) the temperature 
corresponding to the energy value 50 percent 
of the difference between values obtained at 
100 percent and percent fibrous fracture, 



9 Fahey, N. H., "Effects of Variables in Charpy Im- 
pact Testing," Materials Research & Standards, MTRSA 
Vol l,No. 11, Nov., 1961, p. 872. 



A 370 



and (4) the temperature corresponding to a 
specific energy value. 

S26.3 A problem peculiar to Charpy-type 
tests occurs when high-strength, low-energy 
specimens are tested at low temperatures. 
These specimens may not leave the machine 
in the direction of the pendulum swing hut 
rather in a sidewise direction. To ensure that 
the broken halves of the specimens do not re- 
bound off some component of the machine and 
contact the pendulum before it completes its 
swing, modifications may be necessary in older 
model machines. These, modifications differ 
with machine design. Nevertheless the basic 
problem is the same in that provisions must 
be made to prevent rebounding of the frac- 
tured specimens into any part of the swinging 
pendulum. Where design permits, the broken 
specimens may be deflected out of the sides of 
the machine and yet in other designs it may 
be necessary to contain the broken specimens 
within a certain area until the pendulum 
passes through the anvils. Some low-energy 
high-strength steel specimens leave impact 
machines at speeds in excess of 50 ft (15.3 m)/ 
s although they were struck by a pendulum 
traveling at speeds approximately 17 ft (5.2 
m)/s. If the force exerted on the pendulum 
by the broken specimens is sufficient, the pen- 
dulum will slow down and erroneously high 
energy values will be recorded. This problem 
accounts for many of the inconsistencies in 
Charpy results reported by various investiga- 
tors within the 10 to 25-fUbf (14 to 34 J) 
range. Section 5.5 of Methods E 23 discusses 



the two basic machine designs and a modifica- 
tion found to be satisfactory in minimizing 
jamming. 

527. Velocity of Straining 

S27.1 Velocity of straining is likewise a 
variable that affects the. notch behavior of 
steel. The impact test shows somewhat higher 
energy absorption values than the static tests 
above the transition temperature and yet, in 
some instances, the reverse is true below the 
transition temperature. 

528. Correlation with Service 

S28.1 While Charpy or Izod tests may not 
directly predict the ductile or brittle behavior 
of steel as commonly used in large masses or 
as components of large structures, these tests 
can be used as acceptance tests of identity for 
different lots of the same steel or in choosing 
between different steels, when correlation 
with reliable service behavior has been estab- 
lished. It may be necessary to make the tests 
at properly chosen temperatures other than 
room temperature. In this, the service tem- 
perature or the transition temperature of full- 
scale specimens does not give the desired 
transition temperatures for Charpy or Izod 
tests since the size and notch geometry may 
be so different. Chemical analysis, tension, 
and hardness tests may not indicate the influ- 
ence of some of the important processing fac- 
tors that affect susceptibility to brittle fracture 
nor do they comprehend the effect of low 
temperatures in inducing brittle behavior. 



VI. PROCEDURE FOR CONVERTING PERCENTAGE ELONGATION OF 

A STANDARD ROUND TENSION TEST SPECIMEN TO EQUIVALENT 

PERCENTAGE ELONGATION OF A STANDARD FLAT SPECIMEN 



S29* Scope 

S29.1 This method specifies a procedure for 
converting percentage elongation after frac- 
ture obtained in a standard 0.500-in. (12.7 
mm) diameter by 2-in. (51-mm) gage length 
test specimen to standard flat test specimens 
7 2 in. by 2 in. and l7 2 in. by 8 in. (38.1 by 
203 mm). 

S30. Basic Equation 

S30.1 The conversion data in this method 



are based on an equation by Berteila, 10 and 
used by Oliver 11 and others. The relationship 
between elongations in the standard 0.500-in. 
diameter by 2.0-in. test specimen and other 
standard specimens can be calculated as fol- 
lows: 

e = e„ (4.47 \/~A/L) a 



10 Berteila, C. A., Giornale del Genio Civile, Vol 60, 
1922, p. 343. 

11 Oliver, D. A., Proceedings of Institute of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, Vol 11, 1928, p. 827. 



A 370 



where: 

e = percentage elongation after fracture, on 
a standard test specimen having a 2-in. 
gage length and 0.500-in. diameter, 

e = percentage elongation after fracture on 
a standard test specimen having a gage 
length L and a cross-sectional area A, 
and 

a = constant characteristic of the test mate- 
rial. .; ... 

S31. Application 

531.1 In applying the above equation the 
constant a is characteristic of the test mate- 
rial The value a ■= 0.4 has been found to give 
satisfactory conversions for carbon, carbon- 
manganese, molybdenum, and chromium- 
molybdenum steels within the tensile strength 
range of 40,000 to 85,000 psi (275 to 585 MPa) 
and in the hot-rolled, in the hot-rolled and 

' normalized, or in the annealed condition, with 
or without tempering. Note that the cold re- 
duced and quenched and tempered states are 
excluded. For annealed austenitic stainless 
steels, the value a = 0.127 has been found to 
give satisfactory conversions. 

53 1.2 Table 11 has been calculated taking 
a = 0.4, with the standard 0.500-in. (12.7 mm) 
diameter by 2-in. (51 mm) gage length test 
specimen as the reference specimen. In the 



case of the subsize specimens 0.350 in. (8.89 
mm) in diameter by 1.4 in. (35.6 mm) gage 
length, and 0.250 (6.35 mm) diameter by 1.0 
in. (25.4 mm) gage length the factor in the 
equation is 4.51 instead of 4.37. The small 
error introduced by using Table 11 for the 
subsized specimens may be neglected. Table 
12 for annealed austenitic steels has been cal- 
culated taking a = 0.127, with the standard 
0.500-in . diameter by 2-in. gage length test 
specimen as the reference specimen. 

53 1 .3 Elongation given for, a standard 0.500- 
in. diameter by 2-in. gage length specimen 
may be converted to elongation for V 2 in. by 
2 in. or lV 2 in. by 8 in. (38.1 by 203 mm) flat 
specimens by multiplying by the indicated fac- 
tor in Tables 1 1 and 1 2. 

53 1.4 These elongation conversions shall 
not be used where the width to thickness ratio 
of the test piece exceeds 20, as in sheet speci- 
mens under 0.025 in. (0.635 mm) in thickness. 

53 1.5 While the conversions are considered 
to be reliable within the stated limitations and 
may generally be used in specification writing 
where it is desirable to show equivalent elon- 
gation requirements for the several standard 
ASTM tension specimens covered in Methods 
A 370, consideration must be given to the met- 
allurgical effects dependent on the thickness 
of the material as processed. 



VII. METHOD OF TESTING UNCOATED SEVEN-WIRE STRESS-RELIEVED 
STRAND FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 



532. Scope 

S32.1 This method provides procedures for 
the tension testing of uncoated seven-wire 
stress-relieved strand for prestressed concrete. 
This method is intended for use in evaluating 
the strand for the properties prescribed in 
Specification A 416. 

533. Genera] Precautions 

533.1 Premature failure of the test speci- 
mens may result if there is any appreciable 
notching, cutting, or bending of the specimen 
by the gripping devices of the testing machine. 

53 3. 2 Errors in testing may result if the 
seven wires constituting the strand are not 
loaded uniformly. 



533.3 The mechanical properties of the 
strand may be materially affected by exces- 
sive heating during specimen preparation. 

533.4 These difficulties may be minimized 
by following the suggested methods of grip- 
ping described in Section S35. 

S34. Gripping Devices 

S34. 1 The true mechanical properties of the 
strand are determined by a test in which frac- 
ture of the specimen occurs in the free span 
between the jaws of the testing machine. 
Therefore, it is desirable to establish a test 
procedure with suitable apparatus which will 
consistently produce such results. Due to in- 
herent physical characteristics of individual 



A 370 



machines, it is not practical to recommend a 
universal gripping procedure that is suitable 
for all testing machines. Therefore, it is nec- 
essary to determine which of the methods of 
gripping described in S34.2 to S34.8 is most 
suitable for the testing equipment available. 

534.2 Standard V- Grips with Serrated Teeth 
{Note 16). 

534.3 Standard V-Grips with Serrated Teeth 
(Note 16), Using Cushioning Material— In this 
method, some material is placed between the 
grips and the specimen to minimize the notch- 
irig effect of the teeth. Among the materials 
which have been used are lead foil, aluminum 
foil, carborundum cloth, bra shims, etc. The 
type and thickness of material required is de- 
pendent on the shape, condition, and coarse- 
ness of the teeth. 

534.4 Standard V-Grips with Serrated Teeth 
(Note 16), Using Special Preparation of the 
Gripped Portions of the Specimen — One of the 
methods used is tinning, in which the gripped 
portions are cleaned, fluxed, and coated by 
multiple dips in molten tin alloy held just above 
the melting point. Another method of prepa- 
ration is encasing the gripped portions in metal 
tubing or flexible conduit, using epoxy resin as 
the bonding agent. The encased portion should 
be approximately twice the length of lay of the 
strand. 

534.5 Special Grips with Smooth, Semi-Cy- 
lindrical Grooves (Note 17) — The grooves and 
the gripped portions of the specimen are coated 
with an abrasive slurry which holds the speci- 
men in the smooth grooves, preventing slip- 
page. The slurry consists of abrasive such as 
Grade 3-F aluminum oxide and a carrier such 
as water or glycerin. 

534.6 Standard Sockets of the Type Used 
for -Wire Rope— The gripped portions of the 
specimen are anchored in the sockets with 
zinc. The special procedures for socketing usu- 
ally employed in the wire rope industry must 
be followed. 

534.7 Dead- End Eye Splices — These de- 
vices are available in sizes designed to .fit each 
size of strand to be tested. 

534.8 Chucking Devices— Use of chucking 
devices of the type generally employed for 
applying tension to strands in casting beds is 
not recommended for testing purposes. 

Note 16 — The number of teeth should be approxi- 



mately 15 to 30 per in., and the minimum effective 
gripping length should be approximately 4 in. (102 
mm). 

Note 17- — The radius of curvature of the grooves is 
approximately the same as the radius of the strand 
being tested, and is located J62 in. (0.79 mm) above the 
flat face of the grip. This prevents the two grips from 
closing tightly when the specimen is in place. 

S35. Specimen Preparation 

535.1 Nonuniform loading of the seven 
wires in the strand may result if slippage of 
the individual wires of the strand, either the 
outside wire or the center wire, occur during 
the tension test. Wire slippage may be mini- 
mized by fusing together the cut ends of the 
specimen. This fusing can be concurrent with 
torch cutting of the specimens. 

535.2 If the molten-metal temperatures 
employed during hot-dip tinning or socketing 
with metallic material are too high, over ap- 
proximately 700 F (370 C), the specimen may 
be heat affected with a subsequent loss of 
strength and ductility. Careful temperature 
controls should be maintained if such methods 
of specimen preparation are used. 

S36. Procedure 

536.1 Yield Strength — For determining the 
yield strength use a Class B-l extensometer 
(Note 18) as described in Method E 83. Apply 
an initial load of 10 percent of the expected 
minimum breaking strength to the specimen, 
then attach the extensometer and adjust it to a 
reading of 0.001 in./in. of gage, length. Then 
increase the load until the extensometer indi- 
cates an extension of 1 percent. Record the load 
for this extension as the yield strength. The 
extensometer may be removed from the speci- 
men after the yield strength has been deter- 
mined. 

536.2 Elongation — For determining the 
elongation use a Class D extensometer (Note 
18), as described in Method E 83, having a gage 
length of not less than 24 in. (610 mm) (Note 
19). Apply an initial load of 10 percent of the 
required minimum breaking strength to the 
specimen, then attach the extensometer (Note 
18) and adjust it to a zero reading. The exten- 
someter may be removed from the specimen 
prior to rupture after the specified minimum 
elongation has been exceeded. It is not neces- 
sary to determine the final elongation value. 



# A 370 



S36.3 Breaking Strength — Determine the. 
maximum load at which one or more wires of 
the strand are fractured. Record this load as 
the breaking strength of the strand. 



Note 18 — The yield-strength extensometer and the 
elongation extensometer may be the same instrument 
or two separate instruments. Two separate instruments 
are advisable since the more sensitive yield-strength 
extensometer, which could be damaged when the strand 
fractures, may be removed following the determination 
of yield strength. The elongation extensometer may be 
constructed with less sensitive parts or be constructed 



in such a way that little damage would result if fracture 
occurs while the extensometer is attached to the speci- 
men. 

Note 19 — Specimens that break outside the exten- 
someter or in the jaws and yet meet the minimum 
specified values are considered as meeting the mechan- 
ical property requirements of the product Specification 
A 416 r regardless of what procedure of gripping has 
been used. Specimens that break outside of the exten- 
someter or in the jaws and do not meet the minimum 
specified values are subject to retest in accordance with 
Specification A 416. Specimens that break between the 
jaws of the extensometer and do not meet the minimum 
specified values are subject to retest as provided in 
Section 1 4 of Specification A 4 1 6 . 



VIII. ROUNDING OF TEST DATA 



S37. Rounding 

S3 7.1 Recommended levels for rounding 
reported values of test data are given in Table 
13. These values are designed to provide uni- 



formity in reporting and data storage, and 
should be used in all cases except where they 
conflict with specific requirements of a prod- 
uct specification. 



TABLE 1 Details of Test Coupon Design for Casting (See Fig. 3) 

Note 1 — Test Coupons for Large and Heavy Steel Castings: The test coupons in Fig. 3 are to be used for large and heavy steel 
. castings. However, at the option of the foundry the cross-sectional area and length of the standard coupon may be increased as 
desired. This provision does not apply to ASTM Specification A 356, for Heavy- Walled Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Castings for 
Steam Turbines (Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.02). 

Note 2 — Bend Bar: If a bend bar is required, an alternate design (as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 3) is indicated. 



Leg Design (125mm) 



Riser Design 



1. L (length) 



2. End taper 

3. Height 

4. Width (at top) 

5. Radius (at bottom) 

6. Spacing between 

legs 

7. Location of test 

bars 



8. Number of legs 



9. R s 



A 5 in. (125 mm) minimum 
length will be used. This 
length may be increased at 
the option of the foundry to 
accommodate additional test 
bars (see Note 1). 

Use of and size of end taper is 
at the option of the foundry. 

1.J4 in. (32 mm) 

\ { A in. (32 mm) (see Note 1). 

Viin. (13 mm), max 

A '/rin. (13-mm) radius will be 
used between the legs. 

The tensile, bend, and impact 
bars will be taken from the 
lower portion of the leg (see 
Note 2). 

The number of legs attached to 
the coupon is at the option of 
the foundry providing they 
are equispaced according to 
Item 6. 

-Radius from to approxi- 
mately V\t in- (2 mm). 



1. L (length) 



2. Width 



3. T (riser taper) 
Height 



The length of the riser at the 
base will be the same as the 
top length of the leg. The 
length of the riser at the top 
therefore depends on the 
amount of taper added to the 
riser. 

The width of the riser at the 
base of a multiple-leg coupon 
shallben(2 1 / 4 )(57mm) - 5 /s 
(16 mm) where n equals 
the number of legs attached 
to the coupon. The width of 
the riser at the top is there- 
fore dependent on the 
amount of taper added to the 
riser. 

Use of and size is at the option 
of the foundry. 

The minimum height of the 
riser shall be 2 in. (51 mm). 
The maximum height is at 
the option of the foundry for 
the following reasons: {a) 
Many risers are cast open, 
(b) different compositions 
may require variation in ris- 
ering for soundness, (c) dif- 
ferent pouring temperatures 
may require variation in ris- 
ering for soundness. 



A 370 



TABLE 2 Multiplying Factors to Be Used for Various Diameters of Round Test Specimens 





Standard Specimen 




Small Size Sp 


ecimens Proportional to Standard 






0.500 in. Round 




0.350 in. Round 




0.25C 


) in. Round 


Actual 
Diameter 


Area, 
in. 2 


Multiplying 
Factor 


Actual 
Diameter 


A re f ' Multiplying 
* n - Factor 


Actual 
Diameter, 


Area, 
in. 2 


Multiplying 
Factor 


in. 






in. 






in. 






0.490 


0.1886 


5.30 


0.343 


0.0924 


10.82 


0.245 


0.0471 


21.21 


0.491 


0.1893 


5.28 


0.344 


0.0929 


10.76 


0.246 


0.0475 


21.04 


0.492 


0.1901 


5.26 


0.345 


0.0935 


10.70 


0.247 


0.0479 


20.87 


0.493 


0.1909 


5:24 


0.346 


0.0940 


10.64 


0.248 


0.0483 


20.70 


0.494 


0.1917 


5.22 


0.347 


0.0946 


10.57 


0.249 


0.0487 


20.54 


0.495 


0.1924 


5:20 


0.348' 


0.0951 


10.51 


0.250 


0.0491 


20.37 


0.496 


0.1932 


5.18 


0.349 


0.0957 


10.45 


0.251 


0.0495 
(0.05) a 


20.21 
(20. 0) a 


0.497 


0.1940 


5.15 


0.350 


0.0962 


10.39 


0.252 


0.0499 
(0.05) a 


20.05 
(20.0) a 


0.498 


0.1948 


5.13 


0,351 


0.0968 


10.33 


0.253 


0.0503 
(0.05) a 


19.89 
(20.0) a 


0.499 


0.1956 


: 5.11 


0.352 


0.0973 


- .10.28, 


0.254 


0.0507 


19.74 


0.500 


0.1963 


: , 5/09 


0.353 


0.0979 


10.22 


0.255 


0.0511 


19.58 


0.501 


0.1971 


5.07 


0.354 


0.0984 


10.16 








0.502 


0.1979 


5.05 


0.355 


0.0990 


10.10 








0.503 


0.1987 


5.03 


0.356 


0.0995 
<0.1)° 


10.05 
(1-0.0)° 








0.504 


0.1995 

; (o.2) a 


5.01 

(5-0) a 


. 0.357 


. 0.1001 

(Q.D a 


9,99 
(10.0)" 








0.505 


0.2003 
(0.2) a 


4.99 

(5.0) a 














0.506 


0.2011 
(0.2)° 


4.97 

(5.0)° 














0.507 


0.2019 


4.95 














0.508 


0.2027 


4.93 














.0.509 


0.2035 


4.91 














0.510 


0.2043. 


4.90 















, ^The values in parentheses may be used for ease in calculation of stresses, in pounds per square inch, as 
permitted in Note 5 of Fig. 5. 



A 370 



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A 370 



TABLE 3C 


Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Austenitic Steels (Rockwell C to other Hardness 






Numbers) 








Rockwell C 


Rockwell A Scale, 
60-kgf Load, Dia- 


Rockwell Superficial 


Hardness 




Scale, 150-kgf 

Load, Diamond 

Penetrator 


15N Scale, 15-kgf 


30N Scale, 30-kgf 45N Scale, 45-kgf 
Load, Diamond Load, Diamond 


mond Penetrator 


Load, Diamond 




Penetrator 


Penetrator 


Penetrator 


48 


74.4 


84.1 


66.2 




52.1 


47 


73.9 


83.6 


65.3 




50.9 


46 


73.4 


83.1 


64.5 ■ 




49.8 


45 


72.9 


82.6 


63.6 




48.7 


44 


72.4 


82,1 


62.7 




47.5 


43 


71.9 


81.6 


61.8 




46.4 


42 


71.4 


81.0 


61.0 




45.2 


41 


70.9 


80.5 


60.1 




44.1 


40 


70.4 


80.0 


59.2 




43.0 


39 


69.9 


79.5 


58.4 




41.8 


38 


69.3 


79.0 


57,5 




40.7 


37 


68.8 


78.5 


56.6 




39.6 


36 


68.3 


78.0 


55.7 




38.4 


35 


6.7.8. 


7.7.5 .,. 


54.9 




37.3 


34 


67.3 


77.0 


54.0 




36.1 


33 


66.8 


76.5 


53.1 




35.0 


32 


66.3 


75.9 


.■ 52.3 




33.9 


31 


65.8 


75.4 


51.4 




32.7 


30 


65.3 


74.9 


50.5 




31.6 


29 


64.8 


74.4 


49.6 




30.4 


28 


64.3 


73.9 


48.8 




29.3 


27 


63.8 


73.4 


4.7.9 




28.2 


26 


63.3 


72.9 


47.0 




27.0 


25 


62,8 


72.4 


46.2 




25.9 


24 


62.3 


71.9 


45.3 




24.8 .. 


23 


61.8 


71.3 


44.4 




23.6 


22 


61.3 


70.8 


43.5 




22.5 


21 


60.8 ? 


. 70.3 


42.7 




21.3 


20 


60.3 


69.8 


41.8 




20.2 


TABLE 3D 


Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Austenitic Steels (Rockwell B to other Hardness 


*' , 




Numbers) 














Rockwell Superficial Hardness 


Rockwell B 
Scale, 100- 


Brinell Indenta- Brinell Hardness, ^fA 
tion Diameter, 3000-kgf Load, T ^ le \™Z£ A 








15T Scale, 


30T Scale, 


45T Scale, 


kgf Load, Vie- 


15-kgf 


30-kgf 


45-kgf 


in. (1.588- 


mm 10-mm Ball 


Penetrator 


Load, Vie- 


Load, Vi6- 


Load, Vie- 


mm) Ball 




in. (1.588- 


in. (1.588- 


in. (1.588- 








mm) Ball 


mm) Ball 


mm) Ball 


100 


3.79 256 


61.5 


91.5 


80.4 


70.2 


99 


3.85 248 


60.9 


91.2 


79.7 


69.2 


98 


3.91 240 


60.3 


90.8 


79.0 


68,2 


97 


3.96 233 


59.7 


90.4 


78.3 


67.2 


96 


4.02 226 


59.1 


90.1 


77.7 


66.1 


95 


4.08 219 


58.5 


89.7 


77.0 


65.1 


94 


4.14 213 


58.0 


89.3 


76.3 


64.1 


93 


4.20 207 


57.4 


88.9 


75.6 


63.1 


92 


4.24 202 


56.8 


88.6 


74.9 


62.1 


91 


4.30 197 


56.2 


88.2 


74.2 


61.1 


90 


4.35 192 


55.6 


87.8 


73.5 


60.1 


89 


4.40 187 


55.0 


87.5 


72.8 


59.0 


88 


4.45 183 


54.5 


87.1 


72.1 


58.0 


87 


4.51 178 


53.9 


86.7 


71.4 


57.0 


86 


4.55 174 


. 53.3 


86.4 


70.7 


56.0 


85 


4.60 170 


52.7 


86.0 


70.0 


55.0 


84 


4.65 167 


52.1 


85.6 


69.3 


54.0 


83 


4.70 163 


51.5 


85.2 


68.6 


52.9 


82 


4.74 160 


50.9 


84.9 


67.9 


51.9 


81 


4.79 156 


50.4 


84.5 


67.2 


50.9 


80 


4.84 153 


49.8 


84.1 


66.5 


49.9 



W A 370 

TABLE 4 Percent Shear for Measurements Made in Inches 

Note — Since Table 4 is set up for finite measurements or dimensions A and B, 106 percent shear is to be reported when 
either A or B is zero. 



Dimen- 
sion 
5, in. 
















Dimension A 


,in. 
















0.05 


0.10 


0.12 


0.14 


0.16 


0.18 


0.20 


0.22 


0.24 


0.26 


0.28 


0.30 


0.32 


0.34 


0.36 


0.38 


0.40 


0.05 


98 


96 


95 


94 


94 


93 


92 


91 


90 


90 


89 


88 


87 


86 


85 


85 


84 


0.10 


96 


92 


90 


89 


87 


85 


84 


82 


81 


79 


77 


76 


74 


73 


71 


69 


68 


0.12 


95 


90 


88 


86 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


75 


73 


71 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


0.14 


94 


89 


86 


84 


82 


80 


77 


75 


73 


71 


68 


66 


64 


62 


59 


57 


55 


0.16 


94 


87 


85 


82 


79 


77 


74 


72 


69 


67 


64 


61 


59 


56 


53 


51 


48 


0.18 


93 


85 


83 


80 


77 


74 


72 


68 


65 


62 


59 


56 


54 


51 


48 


45 


42 


0.20 


92 


84 


81 


77 


74 


72 


68 


65 


61 


58 


55 


52 


48 


45 


42 


39 


36 


0.22 


91 


82 


79 


75 


72 


68 


65 


61 


57 


54 


50 


47 


43 


40 


36 


33 


29 


0.24 


90 


81 


77 


73 


69 


65 


61 


57 


54 


50 


46 


42 


38 


34 


30 


27 


23 


0.26 


90 


79 


75 


71 


67 


62 


58 


54 


50 


46 


41 


37 


33 


29 


25 


20 


16 


0.28 


89 


77 


73 


68 


64 


59 


55 


50 


46 


41 


37 


32 


28 


23 


18 


14 


10 


0.30 


88 


76 


71 


66 


61 


56 


'52 


47 


42 


37 


32 


27 


23 


18 


13 


9 


3 


0.31 


" 88 


75 


70 


65 


60 


55 


50 


45 


40 


35 


30 


'25 


20 


18 


10 


5 






TABLE 5 Percent Shear for Measurements Made in Millimeters 

Note — Since Table 5 is set up for finite measurements or dimensions A and B, 100 percent shear is to be reported when 
either A or B is zero. 



Dimen- 
sion 
B, mm 


Dimension^, mm 


1.0 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


5.0 


5.5 


6.0 


6.5 


7.0 


7.5 


8.0 


8.5 


9.0 


9.5 


10 


1.0 


99 


98 


98 


97 


96 


96 


95 


94 


94 


93 


92 


92 


91 


91 


90 


89 


89 


88 


88 


1.5 


98 


97 


96 


95 


94 


93 


92 


92 


91 


90 


89 


88 


87 


86 


85 


84 


83 


82 


81 


2.0 


98 


96 


95 


94 


92 


91 


90 


89 


88 


86 


85 


84 


82 


81 


80 


79 


77 


76 


75 


2.5 


97 


95 


94 


92 


91 


89 


88 


86 


84 


83 


81 


80 


78 


77 


75 


73 


72 


70 


69 


3.0 


96 


94 


92 


91 


89 


87 


85 


83 


81 


79 


77 


76 


74 


72 


70 


68 


66 


64 


62 


3.5 


96 


93 


91 


89 


87 


85 


82 


80 


78 


76 


74 


72 


69 


67 


65 


63 


61 


58 


56 


4.0 


95 


92 


90 


88 


85 


82 


80 


77 


75 


72 


70 


67 


65 


62 


60 


57 


55 


52 


50 


4.5 


94 


92 


89 


86 


83 


80 


77 


75 


72 


69 


66 


63 


61 


58 


55 


52 


49 


46 


44 


5.0 


94 


91 


88 


85 


81 


78 


75 


72 


69 


66 


62 


59 


56 


53 


50 


47 


44 


41 


37 


5.5 


93 


90 


96 


83 


79 


76 


72 


69 


66 


62 


59 


55 


52 


48 


45 


42 


38 


35 


31 


- 6.0 


92 


89 


85 


81 


77 


74 


70 


66 


62 


59 


55 


51 


47 


44 


40 


36 


33 


29 


25 


-6.5 


92 


88 


84 


80 


76 


72 


67 


63 


59 


55 


51 


47 


43 


39 


35 


31 


27 


23 


19 


! =-7:0 ' ■ 


91 


87 


82 


78 


74 


69 


65 


61 


56 


52 


47 


43 


39 


34 


30 


26 


21 


17 


12 


7.5- 


91 


86 


81 


77 


72 


67 


62 


58 


53 


48 


, 44 


39 


34 


30 


25 


20 


16 


11 


6 


8.0 


90 


85 


80 


75 


70 , ? 

. -il 


65 


60 


55. 


50 


45 


40 


35 


30 


25 


20 


15 


10 


. 5 






W A 370 

TABLE 6 Recommended Practice for Selecting Bend Test 
Specimens 

Note 1 — The length of all specimens is to be not less 
than 6 in. (150 mm): 

Note 2 — The edges of the specimen may be rounded 
to a radius not exceeding He in. (1.6 mm). 



Flats 




Thickness, in. Width, in. 


Recommended Size 


(mm) (mm) 




Up to V2 Up to % 


Full section. 


(13), incl (19), incl 


Full section or machine 


Over % (19) 


to not less than 3 / 4 in. 




(19 mm) in width by 




thickness of spec- 




imen. 


Over 14(13) All 


Full section or machine 




to 1 by '/ 2 in. (25 by 




13 mm) specimen 




from midway be- 




tween center and sur- 




face. 


Rounds, Squares, Hexagons, and Octagons 


Diameter or Distance 




Between Parallel 


Recommended Size 


Faces, in. (mm) 





Up: to \y 2 (38), incl . Full section. 

Over 1 Vi (38) , Machine to 1 by '/ 2 -in. (25 by 

13-mm) specimen from 
midway between center and 
surface.' 



A 370 



TABLE 7 Recommendations for Selecting Tension Test Specimens 

Note 1 — For bar sections where it is difficult to determine the cross-sectional area by simple measurement, the area in 
square inches may be calculated by dividing the weight per linear inch of specimen in pounds by 0.2833 (weight of 1 in. 3 of 
steel) or by dividing the weight per linear foot of specimen by 3.4 (weight of steel 1 in. square and 1 ft long). 



Thickness, in. 
(mm) 



Width, in. 
(mm) 



Hot-Rolled Bars 



Cold-Finished Bars 



Flats 



Under 5 /s (16) 



% to 114 (16 to 38), 
excl 



Up to 114(38), incl 

Over VA (38) 

Up to l 1 / 2 (38),incl 



Over l'/ 2 (38) 



1 14 (38 ) and over 



Full section by 8-in. (203-mm) 
gage length (Fig. 4). 



Full section, or mill to 114 in. 
(38 .mm) wide by 8-in. (203- 
mm) gage length (Fig. 4). 

Full section by 8-in. gage 
length or machine standard 
V-i by 2-in. (13 by 51 -mm) 
gage length specimen from 
center of section (Fig. 5). 



Full section, or mill 114 in. (38 
mm) width by 8-in. (203- 
mm) gage length (Fig. 4) or 
machine standard l A by 2-in. 
gage (13 by 51 -mm) gage 
length specimen from 
midway between edge and 
center of section (Fig. 5). 

Full section by 8-in. (203-mm) 
gage length, or machine 
standard l / 2 by 2-in. (13 by 
51-mm) gage length spec- 
imen from midway between 
surface and center (Fig. 5). 



Mill reduced section to 2-in. 
(51-mm) gage length and 
approximately 25 percent 
less than test specimen 
width. 

Mill reduced section to 2-in. 
gage length and 1 14 in. wide. 

Mill reduced section to 2-in. 
(51-mm) gage length and 
approximately 25 percent 
less than test specimen width 
or machine standard l A by 2- 
in. (13 by 51-mm) gage 
length specimen from center 
of section (Fig. 5). 

Mill reduced section to 2-in. 
gage length and 114 in. wide 
or machine standard 14 by 2- 
in. gage length specimen 
from midway between edge 
and center of section (Fig. 5) 



Machine standard 14 by 2-in. 
(13 by 51-mm) gage length 
specimen from midway be- 
tween surface and center 
(Fig. 5). 



Rounds, Squares, Hexagons, and Octagons 



Diameter or Distance 

Between Parallel Faces, 

in. (mm) 



Hot-Rolled Bars 



Cold-Finished Bars 



Under % 

% to \Y 2 (16 to 38), 
excl 



iy 2 (38) and over 



Full section by 8-in. (203-mm) gage length or 
machine to sub-size specimen (Fig. 5). 

Full section by 8-in. (203-mm) gage length or 
machine standard 14 in. by 2-in. (13 by 51- 
mm) gage length specimen from center of 
section (Fig. 5). 

Full section by 8-in. (203-mm) gage length or 
machine standard 14 in. by 2-in. (13 by 51- 
mm) gage length specimen from midway 
between surface and center of section (Fig. 
5). 



Machine to sub-size specimen (Fig. 5). 

Machine standard J4 in. by 2-in. gage length 
specimen from center of section (Fig. 5). 



Machine standard 14 in. by 2-in. (13 by 51- 
mm gage length specimen from midway 
between surface and center of section (Fig. 
5). 



Other Bar-Size Sections 



All sizes 



Full section by 8-in. (203-mm) gage length or 
prepare test specimen 114 in. (38 mm) wide 
(if possible) by 8-in. (203-mm) gage 
length. 



Mill reduced section to 2-in. (51-mm) gage 
length and approximately 25 percent less 
than test specimen width. 



A 370 



TABLE 8 Wall Thickness Limitations of Superficial 
Hardness Test on Annealed or Ductile Materials 

("T" Scale ('/ie-in. Ball)) 



Wall Thickness, in. (mm) 



Load, kgf 



Over 0.050 (1.27) 
Over 0.035 (0.89) 
0.020 and over (0.51) 



45 
30 
15 



a The heaviest load recommended for a given wall 
thickness is generally used. 



TABLE 9 Wall Thickness Limitations of Superfi- 
cial Hardness Test on Cold Worked or Heat Treated 
Material 

("N" Scale (Diamond Penetrator)) 



Wall Thickness, in. (mm) 



Load, kgf 



Over 0.035(0.89) 
Over 0.025 (0.51) 
0.015 and over (0.38) 



45 
30 
15 



a The heaviest load recommended for a given wall thick- 
ness is generally used. 



TABLE 10 Effect of Varying Notch Dimensions on Standard Specimens 



High-Energy 
Specimens, ft-lbf (J) 



High-Energy 
Specimens, ft-lbf (J) 



■ Low-Energy 
Specimens, ft -lbf (J) 



Specimen with standard dimensions 
Depth of notch, 0.084 in. (2.13 mm) a 
Depth of notch, 0.0805 in. (2.04 mm) a 
Depth of notch, 0.0775 in. (1.77 mm) a 
Depth of notch, 0.074 in. (1.57 mm) a 
Radius at base of notch, 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) 6 
Radius at base of notch, 0.015 in. (0.381 mm)* 



76.0 ±3.8 (103.0 ±5.2) 

72.2(97.9) 

75.1(101.8) 

76.8(104.1) 

79.6(107.9) 

72.3 (98.0) 

80.0(108.5) 



44.5 ±2.2 (60.3 ±3.0) 

41.3(56.0) 

42.2(57.2) 

45,3(61.4) 

46.0(62.4) 

41.7(56.5) 

47.4(64.3) 



12.5 ±1.0(16.9 ±1.4) 

11.4(15.5) 

12.4(16,8) 

12.7(17.2) 

12.8(17.3) 

10.8(14.6) 

15.8(21.4) 



a Standard 0.079 ± 0.002 in. (2.00 ± 0.05 mm). 

b Standard 0.010 ± 0.001 in. (0.25 ± 0.025 mm). 



A 370 



TABLE 11 Carbon and Alloy Steels— Material 
Constant a = 0.4. Multiplication Factors for Converting 
Percent Elongation from Vi-in. Diameter by 2-in. Gage 
Length Standard Tension Test Specimen to Standard l A 
by 2-in. and Wi by 8-in. Flat Specimens 



TABLE 12 Annealed Austenitic Stainless Steels- 
Material Constant a = 0.127. Multiplication Factors for 
Converting Percent Elongation from Vfe-in. Diameter by 
2-in. Gage Length Standard Tension Test Specimen to 
Standard V2 by 2-in. and 1 V2 by 8-in. Flat Specimens 





Viby 


1 V2 by f 




IWby 




V% by 


1 V% by 




lV2by 


Thickness, 


2-in. 


8-in. 


Thickness, 


8-in. 


Thickness, 


2-in. 


8-in. 


Thickness, 


8-in. 


in. 


Specimen 


Specimen. 


in. 


Specimen 


in. 


Specimen 


Specimen 


in. 


Specimen 


0.025 


0.574 




0.800 


0.822 


0.025 


0.839 




0.800 


0.940 


0.030 


0.596 




0.850 


0.832 


0.030 


0.848 






0.850 


0.943 


0.035 


0.614 




0.900 


0.841 


0.035 


0.857 






0.900 


0.947 


0.040 


0.631 




0.950 


0.850 


0.040 


0.864 






0.950 


0.950 


0.045 


0.646 




1.000 


0.859 


0.045 


0.870 






1.000 


0.953 


0.050 


0.660 




1.125 


0.880 


0.050 


0.876 






1 . 125 


0.960 


0.055 


0.672 




1.250 


0.898 


0.055 


0.882 






1.250 


0.966 


0.060 


0.684 




1.375 


0.916 


0.060 


0.886 






1.375 


0.972 


0.065 


0.695 




1.500 


0-932 


0.065 


0.891 






1.500 


0.978 


0,070 


0.706 




1.625 


0.947 


0.070 


0.895 






1.625 


0.983 


0.075 


0.715 




1.750 


0.961 


0.075 


0.899 






1.750 


0.987 


0.080 


0.725 




1.875 


0.974 


0.080 


0.903 






1.875 


0.992 


0.085 


0.733 




2.000 


0.987 


0.085 


0.906 






2.000 


0.996 


0.090 


0.742 


0.531 


2 . 125 


0.999 


0.090 


0.909 


0.818 


2.125 


1.000 


0.100 


0.758 


0.542 


2.250 


1.010 


0.095 


0.913 


0.821 


2.250 


1.003 


0.110 


0.772 


0.553 


2.375 


1.021 


• 0.100 


0.916 


0.823 


2.375 


1.007 


0.120 


0.786 


0.562 


2.500 


1 .032 


0.110 


0.921 


0.828 


2.500 


1.010 


0.130 


0.799 


0.571 


2.625 


1.042 


0.120 


0.926 


0.833 


2.625 


1.013 


0.140 


0.810 


0.580 


2.750 


1.052 


0.130 


0.931 


0.837 


2.750 


1.016 


0.150 


0.821 


0.588 


2.875 


1.061 


0.140 


0.935 


0.841 


2.875 


1.019 


0.160 


0.832 


0.596 


3.000 


1.070 


0.150 


0.940 


0.845 


3.000 


1.022 


0.170 


0.843 


0.603 


3.125 


1.079 


0.160 


0.943 


0.848 


3.125 


1.024 


0.180 


0.852 


0.610 


3.250 


1.088 


0.170 


0.947 


0.852 


3.250 


1.027 


0.190 


0.862 


0.616 


3.375 


1.096 


0.180 


0.950 


0.855 


3.375 


1.029 


0.200 


0.870 


0.623 


3.500 


1. 


04 


0.190 


0.954 


0.858 


3.500 


1.032 


0.225 


0.891 


0.638 


3.625 


1. 


12 


0.200 


0.957 


0.860 


3.625 


1.034 


0.250 


0.910 


0.651 


3.750 


1. 


119 


0.225 


0.964 


0.867 


3.750 


1.036 


0.275 


0.928 


0.664 


3.875 


1. 


127 


0.250 


0.970 


0.873 


3.875 


1.038 


0.300 


0.944 


0.675 


4.000 


1, 


34 


0.275 


0.976 


0.878 


4.000 


1.041 


0.325 


0.959 


0.686 








0.300 


0.982 


0.883 






'0,350 


0.973 


0.696 








0.325 


0.987 


0.887 










0.375 


0.987 


0.706 








0.350 


0.991 


0.892 










0.400 


1.000 


0.715 








0.375 


0.996 


0.895 










0.425 


1.012 


0.724 








0.400 


1.000 


0.899 










0.450 


1.024 


0.732 








0.425 


1.004 


0.903 










0.475 


1.035 


0.740 








0.450 


1.007 


0.906 










0.500 


1.045 


0.748 








0.475 


1.011 


0.909 










0.525 


1.056 


0.755 








0.500 


1.014 


0.912 










0.550 


1.066 


0.762 








0.525 


1.017 


0.915 










0.575 


1.075 


0.770 








0.550 


1.020 


0.917 










0.600 


1.084 


0.776 








0.575 


1.023 


0.920 










0.625 


1.093 


0.782 








0.600 


1.026 


0.922 










0.650 


1.101 


0.788 








0.625 


1.029 


0.925 










0.675 


1.110 










0.650 


1.031 


0.927 










0.700 


1.118 


0.800 








0.675 


1.034 












0.725 


1 .126 










0.700 


1.036 


0,932 










0.750 


1.134 


0.811 








0.725 
0.750 


1.038 
1.041 


0.936 



























A 370 



TABLE 13 Recommended Values for Rounding Test Data 



Test Quantity 




Test Data Range 


Rounded Value 4 


Yield Point, 
Yield Strength, 


\ 


up to 50 000 psi, excl ; 
50 000 to 100 000 psi, excl 
100 000 psi and above 


i00 psi 

500 psi 

1000 psi : 


Tensile Strength 


( 


up to 500 MPa, excl 


1 MPa 




) 


500 to 1000 MPa, excl 


5 MPa 




/ 


1000 MPa and above 


10 MPa 


Elongation 


1 


to 10%, excl 
10 % and above 


0.5 % 
1 % 


Reduction of Area 


i 


to 10 % , excl 
10 % and above 


0.5 % 
1 % 


Impact Energy 
Brinell Hardness 
Rockwell Hardness 




to 240 ft-lbf (or to 325 J) 
all values 
all scales 


1 ft-lbf (or 1 J) B 

tabular value c 

1 Rockwell Number 



A Round test data to the nearest integral multiple of the values in this column. If the data value is exactly midway be- 
tween two rounded values, round to the higher value. 

B These units are not equivalent but the rounding occurs in the same numerical ranges for each. (1 ft-lbf = 1 .356 J.) 
c Round the mean diameter of the Brinell impression to the nearest 0.05 mm and report the corresponding Brinell 
hardness number read from the table without further rounding. 



LONGITUDINAL SPECIMEN 



^ 



LONGITUDINAL FLAT TENSION TEST 



=£ZZD 



LONGITUDINAL ROUND TENSION TEST 



¥> 



- INDICATES ROLLING DIRECTION , /- 

OR EXTENSION j_ 



TRANSVERSE SPECIMEN 





FIG. 1 The Relation of Test Coupons and Test Speci- 
mens to Rolling Direction or Extension (Applicable to Gen- 
eral Wrought Products). 



A 370 



Tangential Prolongation 

' T "S.4 



Prolongation 

i 




ua 



Longitudinal Test 



Radial Test 



(a) Shafts and Roton 



Prolongation 

Jongenfial Tes 



3^ 




Longitudinal Test 



(b) Hollow Forgings. 



prolongation 




Tangential Test 



(e) Disk Forging* 



> 



s 



s 



< 



Prolongation 



S 




Tangential Test 



Prolongation 




Tangential Test 



Prolongation 




Tangential Test 



(d) Ring Forgings. 
FIG. 2 Locations of Test Specimens for Various Types of Forgings. 



A370 



-3V+2T 




Alternate Design for Bend Bor 




h-T 



-L+2T- 



T— 1 



i 



-L(5"Min)- 



II 



Side View Keel Block Coupon 

{a) Design for Double Keel Block Coupon. 



Podding If T- 
Necessary \, 



— L+2T 

-L(5"Min) 



I 



Alternote Desig n^ 
for Bend Bar 



7 




y2 n Rod 



R x '\ fc"Rad 

\Alterno1e Design for Bend Ba r 
(b) Design for Multiple Keel Block Coupon (4 Legs). 



Note: Radius at Casting- 
Coupon Interface at 
Option of Foundry 



(c) Design for "Attached" Coupon. 
Metric Equivalents 



in. 


: V 16 


% 


l'/ 4 


l 3 /* 


2 


2V4 


37 8 ■ 


-5 


..■ 8%. 


- ^mrn 


4.8 


13 


32 


'45 


. 51 


57 , 


98 


127 


213 



FIG. 3 Test Coupons for Castings {see Table 1 for Details of Design). 



A 370 





* — — L 


r .,-J 










r ° 1 I" " 




f 

w 

i 








■ 




-"""' ; 


~r 




















1 


- 














R 








DIMENSIONS 












Standard Specimens 




Subsize 
l /t-in 


Specimen 




Plate- 


Type, Sheet-Type, 


Wide 




] Vfe-in 


. Wide Win. 


Wide 








in. 


mm in. 


mm 


in. 


mm 


G — Gage length (Notes 1 and 2) 


8.00 ± 


200 ± 2.000 ± 


50.0 ± 


1.000 ± 


25.0 ± 




0.01 


0.25 0.005 


0.10 


0.003 


0.08 


W~ Width (Notes 3, 4, and 5) 


IV2 + Vb 


40 + 3 0.500 ± 


12.5 ± 


0.250 ± 


6.25 ± 




-V* 


-6 0.010 


0.25 


,0.002 


0.05 . 


T — Thickness (Note 6) 




thickness of material 






R — Radius of fillet, min 


V2 


13 V2 


13 


l A 


6 


L — Over-all length, min (Notes 2 and 7) 


18 


450 8 


200 


4 


100 


A — Length of reduced section, min 


9 


225 2V* 


60 


\V* 


32 


B — Length of grip section, min (Note 8) 


3 


75 2 


50 


P/4 


32 


C — Width of grip section, approximate 


2 


50 . J /4 


20 


% 


10 


(Notes 4, 9, and 10) 













Note 1— For the 1 Win. (40-mm) wide specimen, punch marks for measuring elongation after fracture shall be made 
on the flat or on the edge of the specimen and within the reduced section. Either a set of nine or more punch marks 1 in. 
(25 mm) apart, or one or more pairs of punch marks 8 in. (200 mm) apart may be used. 

Note 2 — When elongation measurements of 1 Win. (40-mm) wide specimens are not required, a gage length (G) of 
2.000 in. ± 0.005 in. (50.0 mm ± 0.10 mm) with all other dimensions similar to the plate-type specimen may be used. 

Note 3 — For the three sizes of specimens, the ends of the reduced section shall not differ in width by more than 0.004, 
0.002 or 0.001 in. (0.10, 0.05 or 0.025 mm), respectively. Also, there may be a gradual decrease in width from the ends to 
the center, but the width at either end shall not be more than 0.015 in., 0.005 in., or 0.003 in. (0.40, 0.10 or 0.08 mm), re- 
spectively, larger than the width at the center. 

Note 4 — For each of the three sizes of specimens, narrower widths (W and C) may be used when necessary. In such 
cases the width of the reduced section should be as large as the width of the material being tested permits; however, unless 
stated specifically, the requirements for elongation in a product specification shall not apply when these narrower speci- 
mens are used. If the width of the material is less than W, the sides may be parallel throughout the length of the specimen. 
Note 5 — The specimen may be modified by making the sides parallel throughout the length of the specimen, the width 
and tolerances being the same as those specified above. When necessary a narrower specimen may be used, in which case 
the width should be as great as the width of the material being tested permits. If the width is I V2 in. (38 mm) or less, the 
sides may be parallel throughout the length of the specimen. 

Note 6— The dimension T is the thickness of the test specimen as provided for in the applicable material specifications. 
Minimum nominal thickness of lV2-in. (40-mm) wide specimens shall be 3 /i6 in. (5 mm), except as permitted by the 
product specification. Maximum nominal thickness of 1 /2-in. (12.5-mm) and V4-in. (6-mm) wide specimens shall be 
3 /4 in. (19 mm) and 1 U in. (6 mm), respectively. 

Note 7 — To aid in obtaining axial loading during testing of Win. (6-mm) wide specimens, the over-all length should be 
as the material will permit. 

Note 8 — It is desirable, if possible, to make the length of the grip section large enough to allow the specimen to extend 
into the grips a distance equal to two thirds or more of the length of the grips. If the thickness of Win. (13-mm) wide 
specimens is over 3 /a in. (10 mm), longer grips and correspondingly longer grip sections of the specimen may be necessary 
to prevent failure in the grip section. 

Note 9 — For standard sheet-type specimens and subsize specimens the ends of the specimen shall' De symmetrical with 
the center line of the reduced section within 0.01 and 0.005 in; (0.25 and 0.13 mm), respectively. However, for steel 
if the ends of the V2-in. (12.5-mm) wide specimen are symmetrical within 0.05 in. (1.0 mm) a specimen may be con- 
sidered satisfactory for all but referee testing. 

Note 10 — For standard plate- type specimens the ends of the specimen shall be symmetrical with the center line of the 
reduced section within 0.25 in. (6.35 mm) except lor referee testing in which case the ends of the specimen shall be sym- 
metrical with the center line of the reduced section within 0.10 in. (2.5 mm). 

FIG. 4 Rectangular Tension Test Specimens. 



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/ 

R 
DIMENSIONS 



Specimen 1 



Specimen 2 



Specimen 3 



G— Length of parallel 
D — Diameter 



0.500 : 



Shall be equal to or greater than diameter D 

12.5 ± 0.750 db 20.0 ± 1.25 ± 30.0 ± 





0.010 


0.25 


0.015 


0.40 


0.025 


0.60 


i?— Radius of fillet, min 


1 


25 


1 


25 


2 


50 


A— Length of reduced section, min 


iK 


32 


• IK 


38 


214 


60 


L — Over-all length, min 


M 


95 


4 


100 


m 


160 


B — Length of end section, approxi- 


i 


25 


1 


25 


\% 


45 


mate 














C— Diameter of end section, approxi- 


K 


20 


W 


30 


V/s 


48 


mate 














E — Length of shoulder, min 


X 


6 


M 


6 


Ke 


8 


F— Diameter of shoulder 


% ± X* 


16.0 ± 


x Ke ± 


24.0 ± 


lKe± 


36.5 ± 






0.40 


X* 


0.40 


Ka 


0.40 



Note — The reduced section and shoulders (dimensions A, D, E, F, G, and R) shall be shown, but the ends may be 
of any form to fit the holders of the testing machine in such a way that the load shall be axial. Commonly the ends are 
threaded and have the dimensions B and C given above. 

FIG. 7 Standard Tension Test Specimen for Cast Iron. 




FIG. 8 Stress-Strain Diagram Showing Yield Point 
Corresponding with Top of Knee. 



A 370 




om = Specified Extension Under Load 

FIG. 9 Stress-Strain Diagram Showing Yield Point or 
Yield Strength by Extension Under Load Method. 




O ^ - ** m 

om = Specified Offset 

FIG. 10 Stress-Strain Diagram for Determination of 
Yield Strength by the Offset Method. 



55mm. 

(2J65'r 



__ 55mm. 
(2.165 "I- 



, 8 mm. 
(0.3/S'j 

, 10 mm I [ 

■ ■ J L_ } 0mm. 
~ H ^-(0.394") 



TYPE A 

i. 



Smm. 
(0./P7") 



, 10mm. [._ I 

f I 1 

J \Wmm. 

^ .^(0.394") 



TrPE B 

Note — Permissible variations shall be as follows: 
Adjacent sides shall be at 
Cross section dimensions 
Length of specimen 
Angle of notch 
Radius of notch 
Dimensions to bottom of notch: 

Specimen, Type A 

Specimen, Type B 
Finish 



0.25 mm. 
A0.0I0") rod. 

_ . 2mm. 
J t (0.079") 

_J ! SAW CUT 

■ /.6mm. (%) OR LESS 



90 deg ± 10 min 
±0.025 mm (0.001 in.) 
+0, -2.5 mm (0.100 in.) 
±1 deg 
±0.025 mm (0.001 in.) 

8 ± 0.025 mm (0.315 ± 0.001 in.) 
5- ±0.05 mm (0.197 ±0.002 in.) 
63 jLtin. (1.6 jum) max on notched surface and opposite 
face; 125 fx'm. (3.2 /xm) max on other two surfaces 



FIG. 11 Simple Beam Impact Test Specimens, Types A and B. 



A 370 



8-mm rod (0.315") 



STRIKING EDGE 




Hnm rtO/f i strike 

t0039,,) lr 40mrT1(l574U 



' rz7 / 

SPECIMEN / 

W --, 

/ 

/ 



ANVIL- 



90 *9' 
fc.SJOOO) 



3 



Center of 
' Strike 
(W/2) 



^Specimen 
Support 



All dimensional tolerances shall be ± 0.05 mm (0.002 
in.) unless otherwise specified. 

Note 1— A shall be parallel to B within 2:1000 and 
coplanar with B within 0.05 mm (0.002 in.). 

Note 2— C shall be parallel to D within 20:1000 and 
coplanar with D within 0.125 mm (0.005 in.). 

Note 3 — Finish on unmarked parts shall be 4 M m (125 
Min. 

FIG. 12 Charpy (Simple- Beam) Impact Test. 





Shear Area 
(dull) 



Cleavage Area 
(shiny) 



Note 1 --Measure average dimensions A and B to the 
nearest 0.02 in. or 0.5 mm. 

Note 2— Determine the percent shear fracture using 
Table 4 or Table 5. 

FIG. 14 Determination of percent Shear Fracture. 



FIG. 13 Halves of Broken Charpy V-Notch Impact 
Specimen Joined for the Measurement of Lateral Expan- 
sion, Dimension A. 



W A 370 




KWjZ* 





-*t 





100* 



85* 



70% 



60% 



SO* 








40% 



30% 



K* 



10% 



o* 



FIG. 15 Fracture Appearance Charts and percent Shear Fracture Comparator. 




FIG. 16 Lateral Expansion Gage for Charpy Impact Specimens. 



A 370 





UJ 


8 

O 


o 




<3 


rf 






(O 


2 




.J 








5 


ID 

g 


O 




O 

CVJ 


OJ 

UJ 




* 


to 


i 


tr 


k 


^ 


O 


_l 




d 


-i 

UJ 


UJ 

co 


UJ 


-1 
UJ 




< 


H 


UJ 


UJ 




UJ 


UJ 






< 


t- 


t- 




K 


t- 




UJ 

< 


2 


to 


to 


a: 


(O 


to 






s 


S 


(£ 








Z 


Z 


S 


*- 


<M 






m 


o 

1 

o 

tO 
UJ 

a 




i- 
< 

_i 


rO 


UJ 
CO 1 -* 

i9 


UJ 

iS 


I 

o 
o 

z 






^ 


UJ 

to 


n 


^ 


Ift* 


_j 






5* 


£ 


< 

Q. 


« 


o 

CO 


S 


2 
















3 




"* 


— 


C\J 


- 


- 


is 




CM 


ro 


^r 


ID 


<£ 



© 



o 




3 




^0. 


< 
-J 

Z 














til 






i *r- 






i* 


J 


to 
u 






< 


o 


zi ■ 


UJ 

a 


z 



[ CD CM 



MS; 



. e> * P 

! z u z 

: < < O 

iKmu 




gfr^ 



S'C Z8I 



iiEiS 




A 370 





^ 



o 



Testing machine jaws 
should not extend / 
beyond this limit — ' 



T 



FIG. 18 Metal Plugs for Testing Tubular Specimens, 
Proper Location of Plugs in Specimen and of Specimen in 
Heads of Testing Machine. 




u- 




— »J 



FIG. 19 Location of Longitudinal Tension Test Specimens 
in Large Diameter Tubing. 



{a) Specimen for 8-in. Gage Length Test (Welded 
Only). 



{b) Specimen for K-in. Gage Length Test. 



I 



{c) Specimen for 2 --in. Gage Length Test. 




(J) Specimen for Full-Section Test. 

FIG. 20 Longitudinal Tension Test Specimens for 
Large Diameter Tubing. 



A 370 



D 
Reduced 
Section i i 3"Min 



Tion I 



3E 



C 
Gage 

Length 

DIMENSIONS 



, . 5 

^-Rad l"Min — *| \*-1 



Specimen No. 



Dimensions, in. 



1 

2 


l /2 ±0.015 
"44 ± 0.03 1 


f n Ae approximately 
1 approximately 


3 


1 ± 0.062 


1 l h approximately 


4 


1 V2. ± Vs 


2 approximately 



2 ± 0.005 


2V4 min 


2 ± 0.005 


2 l A min 


4 ± 0.005 


4 L /2 min 


2 ± 0.005 


2V4 min 


4 ± 0.005 


4V2 min 


2 ± 0.010 


2V4 min 


4 ± 0.015 


4V2 min 


8 ± 0.020 


9 min 



f Editorially corrected. 

Note 1 — Cross-sectional area may be calculated by multiplying A and t. 

Note 2 — The dimension t is the thickness of the test specimen as provided for in the applicable material specifications. 
Note 3 — The reduced section shall be parallel within 0.010 in. and may have a gradual taper in width from the ends 
toward the center, with the ends not more than 0.010 in. wider than the center. 

Note 4 — The ends of the specimen shall be symmetrical with the center line of the reduced section within 0. 10 in. 
Note 5' — Metric equivalent: 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

FIG. 21 Dimensions and Tolerances for Longitudinal Tension Test Specimens for Large Diameter Tubing. 




(^m 



FIG. 22 Location of Transverse Tension Test Specimens 
in Ring Cut from Tubular Products. 



Air 

Bleeder 

Line 




Hydraulic Pressure 



Line-— ^ 



FIG. 24 Testing Machine for Determination of Trans- 
verse Yield Strength, from Annular Ring Specimens. 



/Approx 2" 



Reduced 
Section 
2y'Min 



3 Min 



l'/2±V 



r 



Rad I Min 



2.ood ,io -°° 5 " 

Gage Length 



Note 1 — The dimension t is the thickness of the test 
specimen as provided for in the applicable material speci- 
fications. 

Note 2 — The reduced section shall be parallel within 
0.010 in. and may have a gradual taper in width from the 
ends toward the center, with the ends not more than 0.010 
in. wider than the center. 

Note 3 — The ends of the specimen shall be symmetri- 
cal with the center line of the reduced section within 0.10 
in. 

Note 4 — Metric equivalent: 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

FIG. 23 Transverse Tension Test Specimen Machined 
from Ring Cut from Tubular Products. 



# A 370 




TIG. 25 Roller Chain Type Extensometer, Undamped. 



A 370 




FIG. 26 Roller Chain Type Extensometer, Clamped. 




FIG. 27 Reverse Flattening Test. 






FIG. 28 Crush Test Specimen. 



A 370 




Posihon m {Position 

after Usinj it rod \ after Us/n* 



/7#//«- 



B« Oc/fc. D/am. of Tube lest %* 
C m 0ufs. Diam. of Tube plus j£ 

Flarinq Tool 




Uners^-fci 

A m Outs. D/am. of Tube plus fe 

Oii Block 



Note — Metric equi,, :\v. 1 in. = 25.4mm. 
FIG. 29 Flaring Tool and Die Block for Flange Test. 



-Slope I inlO 




FIG. 30 Tapered Mandrels for Flaring Test. 



Rod V a ' mox 



7. 






H 



TT 



j. 



S 



Face Bend Specimen Root Bend Specimen 

Note — Metric equivalent: 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 
Pipe Wall Thickness (0, in. Test Spedmen Thickness, 



Up to : 
Over 3 / 



, incl 



t 

3 /8 



FIG. 31(a) Transverse Face- and Root-Bend Test 
Specimens 



Rod Vg moi 



ft 



u 



li 



VT 



A 370 



,-IF FLAME CUT, NOT LESS THAN ± 
SHALL BE MACHINED FROM EDGES 
5" MIN- 



NT 



m 



=^=r- 



T=r 



m 



n 



R,«£ MAK 



t, IN. 


T, IN. 1 


V°^2 


t [ 


>l'/ 2 


SEE NOTEJ 



WHEN t EXCEEDS iV 2 USE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 
i. CUT ALONG LINE INDICATED BY ARROW. EDGE 
MAY BE FLAME CUT AND MAY OR MAY NOT BE 
MACHiNED. 
Z. SPECIMENS MAY BE CUT INTO APPROXIMATELY 
EQUAL STRIPS BETWEEN 3/4 " AND i '/ 2 M WIDE 
FOR TESTING OR THE SPECIMENS MAY BE 
9ENT AT FULL WIDTH (SEE REQUIREMENTS 
ON JIG WIDTH IN 



Note— Metric equivalent: 1 in. — 25.4 mm. 
FIG. 31(6) Side-Bend Specimen for Ferrous Materials 



Topped hole to suit 
testing machine- 



3/ 4 V 




[ r 



-V/o- 



Hardened rollers, l!^ diam may 
substituted for jig shoulders 
- — As required - 



Plunger member 

Shoulders hardened 
and greased 




Note: Metric equivalent: 1 in.. = 25.4 mm. 










Test Specimen Thickness, in. 


A 


B 


C 


D 


3 /s' 
t 


IV2 


¥4 
It 


2% 
6t + Vs 


3t+ y l6 



FIG. 32 Guided-Bend Test Jig. 



A 370 




i » 

FIG. 33 Tension Testing Full-Size Bolt, 



S4 



A 370 




c = Clearance of wedge hole. 
d = Diameter of bolt. 
R = Radius. 

T = Thickness of wedge at short side of hole equal to one-half diameter of bolt. 

FIG. 34 Wedge Test Details. 



Minimum Rq6)u« Recommended 
I -ln,but not less Inan £'»n. 
Permitted v 

■zf- 




l*t 0.005" Gage Length for 
Elongation after Fracture 

Notk — Metric equivalent: 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 

FIG. 35 Tension Test Specimen for Bolt with Turned-Down Shank. 



A 370 



Reduced Section 




0.357" ±0.005" 
1.4 00" ±0.005"— *- 



Goge Length 
Reduced Section 




0.252 "+0.005^ 
1.000"* 0.005"-* 

Goge Length 
Note— Metric equivalent: I in. = 25.4 mm. 
FIG. 36 Examples of Small Size Specimens Proportional 
to Standard 2-in. Cage Length Specimen. 




/SPHERICAL 



BEARING 



SERRATED FACES 

ON GRIPS 
A 




, FIG. 37 Location of Standard Round 2-in. Gage 
Length Tension Test Specimen When Turned from Large 
Size Bolt. 



SPHERICAL 
If, BEARING 



Wp£ 



SECTION A-A 
FIG. 38 Wedge-Type GrippingDevice. 




SPECIMEN- 



FIG. 39 Snubbing-Type GrippingDevice. 



The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in 
connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity 
of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. 



This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years 
and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional 
standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the 
responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should 
make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.